Belka kunye Strelka

i-belka kunye ne-strelka

ULaika wayenguvulindlela, kodwa asimele silibale ukuba izidalwa zokuqala ezabuya ziphila zivela emajukujukwini zazizinja. Belka kunye Strelka. Namhlanje, kwisiqingatha senkulungwane edlulileyo, la maqhawekazi amancinci avule indlela kubalandeli bakaYuri Gagarin bexesha elizayo. Ngo-Agasti 19, 1960, izinja zaseSoviet uBelka noStrelka zavula indlela yokuba oosomajukujuku bokuqala bangene emajukujukwini, bebonisa ihlabathi ukuba izinto eziphilayo zinokwenza i-spaceflight kwaye ziphile kwi-orbit.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela malunga nokuxhaphaka kweBelka kunye neStrelka kunye nendlela inqwelomoya ephuhliswe ngayo.

Belka kunye Strelka

izinja zaseSoviet

I-Strelka ("Utolo oluncinci") kunye noBelka ("i-Squirrel"), njengezinye ii-cosmonauts ze-canine zaseSoviet phantsi komyalelo ka-Vladimir Yazdovski, zazingaphantsi kweekhilogram ezi-6 kuphela. Nangona ubucekeceke bayo, injongo yayo yayibalulekile: ukuqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwesiphekepheke saseVostok kwinqwelomoya yokuqala eqhutywa ngumntu kwimbali.

Nangona babengabalinganiswa balo msebenzi, abazange balwe bodwa. Ngaphakathi kweVostok 1K (Korabl-Sputnik 2), nayo I-12 yeempuku, ukungunda, izityalo, iintsholongwane, kunye namaqhekeza esikhumba somntu afunyenwe kwisihlalo sokukhupha. Ngaphandle kwesihlalo, kodwa ngaphakathi kwe-capsule e-spherical capsule, kwakukho ezinye iimpuku ezilishumi elinambini kunye neempuku ezimbini. Inqanawa yayiguqulwe yaba ngumkhombe omncinane oziitoni ezi-4,6.

U-Strelka kunye noBelka babenokubandezeleka okufanayo kunye noLisichka kunye noChayka, izinja ezimbini ezafa kwi-Korabl-Sputnik 1 mission -iVostok yokuqala 1K-. NgoJulayi 28, 1960, imizuzwana eyi-19 emva kokusungulwa, i-rocket ye-8K72 yatsha yavutha kwelinye lamagumbi okutsha akwinqanaba lokuqala le-G-block. Ngenxa yoko, i-transmitter yalahlekelwa yindlela yayo kwaye yaqhekeka kwimizuzwana engama-28,5 emva kokunduluka, yazibulala zombini izilwanyana. Nangona injineli eyintloko uSergei Korolev ngokwakhe watshatyalaliswa yilahleko. Kwakuqhelekile ukuba uKorolev adlale noLisichka kwi-cosmodrome ngaphambi kokuqaliswa. Ukutshatyalaliswa kweKorabl-Sputnik 1 kwanyanzelisa ukuqaliswa kwezihlalo ze-ejection njengendlela yokuphunyuka ngexesha lokuqaliswa.

Ukuqaliswa kweBelka kunye neStrelka

izinja zikasomajukujuku

Ngo-Agasti 19, 1960, ngo-11: 44 ixesha laseMoscow, abalinganiswa bethu basuka e-Baikonur baya emajukujukwini, apho babefanele bachithe imini yonke. ENtshona, i-mission kamva yabizwa ngokuba yi-Sputnik 5, nangona igama elisemthethweni laseSoviet lalinguKorabl-Sputnik 2 ("Satellite Ship"), igama eliqhelekileyo elijoliswe ukufihla ubume bayo bokwenyani.

Abalawuli bomhlaba bakwazi ukulandela i-adventures yenja ebulela kwiikhamera ezimbini zikamabonwakude eziyilwe yi-NII-380 Institute. Ekuqaleni, umqhubi wajonga ngoloyiko njengoko inja ilele ingashukumi kumxhuzulane onguXNUMX, isoyika okona kubi. Ngethamsanqa, kungekudala baqalisa ukuvuka, nangona kungekudala baqalisa ukukhonkotha nokwenza izinto ngokukhawuleza. Nangona uqeqesho, izilwanyana zazama ngokuphindaphindiweyo ukuzikhulula kwi-harness kwaye uBelka wahlanza kwinqanaba lesine.

Njengomgaqo jikelele kwagqitywa ekubeni kucuthwe ixesha lokubhabha kukaGagarin kwi-orbit enye, iyure enesiqingatha, kuba bekukho izinto ezininzi ezingaziwayo malunga nemiphumo yokungabi nabunzima emzimbeni womntu. Emva kosuku olunye kunye neeyure ezimbini esithubeni, i-capsule yeKorabl-Sputnik 2 iphinde yangena ngempumelelo kwi-atmosphere yoMhlaba kwaye izinja zahlala ngokukhuselekileyo kwizihlalo zabo zokukhupha kwingingqi ye-Orsk yaseKazakhstan. IKorabl-Sputnik 2 yinqanawe yokuqala ebuya emajukujukwini kunye nomntu ophilayo ebhodini.

Umsebenzi wezinja

iintshukumo zebelka kunye nestrelka

Ezi zinja zaba ziinkwenkwezi zokwenene emva kweempumelelo zazo. Kwinkomfa yaseVienna, uKhrushchev wanika uJacqueline Kennedy injana yaseStrelka. Inja, egama linguPushinka, yakhuliswa kwaye ihlala kwi-White House, kodwa ngaphambi kokuba iphandwe yi-US Secret Service, iinkonzo zokhuseleko zi-X-ray inja izihlandlo ezininzi, besoyika ukuba iiSoviets zifihle ibug okanye uhlobo oluthile lwesixhobo esiyingozi ngaphakathi kuyo. Nangona kunjalo, uPushenka wayenabantwana abaninzi kunye nenye inja kaKennedy, uCharlie. Namhlanje, iBelka kunye neStrelka inokubonwa kwiMyuziyam yaseMoscow yeCosmonautics.

I-Belka kunye ne-Strelka yayiyibhetshi yokuqala, kodwa phakathi kuka-Agasti ka-1960 kunye no-Matshi ka-1961, izinja ezintandathu zaziza kunikwa imisebenzi yasemajukujukwini eyahlukeneyo, nangona ithamsanqa elahlukileyo. NgoDisemba 1, iKorabl-Sputnik 3 yahamba kunye nezinja uPchelka noMushka. Emva kokugqiba umsebenzi wakho ngempumelelo, ulawulo lomhlaba lwatshabalalisa i-craft emva kokuqinisekisa ukuba i-capsule iya kuhlala ngaphandle kweSoviet Union. Izinja i-Kometa kunye ne-Shutka nazo zabulawa ngexesha lokuqaliswa kwenqanawa yokugqibela yochungechunge lwe-1K ngoDisemba 22.

iziphumo zentlalo

Ukubuya kwakhe ngempumelelo ekhuselekileyo kuthumo lwakhe lwesithuba sosuku olunye kwazalisa izigidi zabantu kwihlabathi liphela ngovuyo. Ingoma kaBelka kunye neStrelka yaba yimitha yethemba phakathi kweMfazwe Yomlomo, ebonisa ukuba imida yokuhlolisisa isibhakabhaka yayingenamida okanye iintlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Uluntu lwakhuthazwa bubukroti nokuzimisela kwakhe, ukufumana unxibelelwano olukhethekileyo lweemvakalelo kwibali lakhe.

Ubuso obuncumileyo beBelka kunye neStrelka baphindaphindeka kwiifoto, izitampu zeposi kunye neethoyi kuzo zonke iikona zomhlaba. Aba bathunywa babini banoboya baba ngoonozakuzaku bomoya wokoyisa kunye nobuhlobo behlabathi. Umfanekiso wakhe waphula imiqobo yolwimi kunye nenkcubeko, esebenza njengophawu lomanyano ngexesha lokwahlukana.

Umsebenzi kaBelka noStrelka wavula iingcango kuphando olutsha lwezenzululwazi kunye nobuchwepheshe. Idatha yabo yebhayoloji exabisekileyo yanceda izazinzulu ukuba ziyiqonde ngcono imiphumo yokungabi nabunzima kwizinto eziphilayo, zihlahlel’ indlela yothumo lwexesha elizayo oluqhutywa ngumntu kwaye zibeka isiseko sokuhlola indawo yoluntu.

Ilifa leBelka kunye neStrelka ladlula ngaphaya kwendawoukufikelela kwizizukulwana ezizayo. Bakhuthaze abantu abaselula abaninzi ukuba balandele amaphupha abo enzululwazi baze bahlolisise iimfihlelo zendalo iphela. Nanamhlanje, igama likaBelka kunye neStrelka lihlala kwimemori edibeneyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuxhaphaka kweBelka Strelka kunye nemiphumo eyayinayo kwihlabathi jikelele ngendlela yentlalo kunye nesayensi.


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