Eyona nto inzima emhlabeni

ikristale nzima kunedayimani

Xa icinga ngezona zinto zinzima ehlabathini eziyilwe ngumntu, inkoliso yabantu ikhawuleza icinge ngeedayimani. Kwaye ngokungathandabuzekiyo yenye yezona zinto zingqongqo kwiplanethi. Nangona kunjalo, kukho izinto ezidlula iidayimani ngokomelela kunye nokomelela.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yeyiphi eyona nto inzima emhlabeni kwaye yintoni eyenza into ibe nzima.

Yintoni ubunzima

eyona nto inzima emhlabeni

Xa sithetha ngococeko, ubulukhuni bento bumiselwa yiathom kunye nemolekyuli. Olu qulunqo lunokudalwa ngenani elingenasiphelo lemidibaniso enokwenzeka, kwaye indibaniselwano nganye yezinto ezithile yiyo ekugqibeleni emisela iimpawu zayo ezizodwa zeekhemikhali kunye nezomzimba.

Ngenxa yobume bayo beathom, ikhabhoni sisixhobo esikhethekileyo. Ngaphandle kweeproton ezintandathu kuphela ngaphakathi kwinucleus yayo, ikhabhoni iyakwazi ukwenza iibhondi ezininzi ezintsonkothileyo ngenxa yokuguquguquka kweejiometri zebhondi. Kwakhona okuphawulekayo kukukwazi ukudibanisa nekhabhoni ngokwayo, ngokukodwa kwiingcinezelo eziphezulu, apho i-crystal lattice ezinzileyo inokuveliswa. Phantsi kwezi meko zifanelekileyo, iiathom zekhabhoni zinokwenza ulwakhiwo oluhlala ixesha elide olubizwa ngokuba yidayimani.

Ukusukela ekufikeni kwe-nanotechnology, ngoku kuyaqatshelwa ukuba kukho ubuncinci ukuhlelwa kwezinto ezintandathu ezidlula amandla edayimane. Ngaphaya koko, kusenokwenzeka ukuba le mali inyuke kwixesha elizayo.

Eyona nto inzima emhlabeni

eyona nto inzima emhlabeni

Wurtzite

I-Wurtzite idume ngokuhlala kwayo okukhethekileyo, ihlala ithelekiswa namandla e-magma eqinile yentaba-mlilo. Ukusebenzisa i-athomu ngaphandle kwekhabhoni, kunokwenzeka ukuvelisa i-crystal nge-boron nitride (BN) njengenye yamacandelo. Oku kudala amathuba amaninzi njengoko inqaku lesihlanu kunye nelesixhenxe kwitheyibhile yeperiodikhi idibana. Umdibaniso obangelwayo unokubakho kwiifom ezahlukeneyo, kubandakanywa i-amorphous (non-crystalline), i-hexagonal (i-graphite-like), i-cubic (into encinci kune-diamond), kunye ne-wurtzite.

Kuzo zonke iinguqu ezinokwenzeka, uhlobo lokugqibela lolona lungaqhelekanga kwaye lunzima kakhulu ukuvelisa. I-Wurtzite ivela kuphela ngexesha logqabhuko-mlilo kwaye ifunyenwe kwimiyinge emincinci, ngoko ke iipropathi zokuqina kwayo azizange zivavanywe kumlinganiselo omkhulu. Nangona kunjalo, i-wurtzite yenza uhlobo olwahlukileyo lwe-crystal lattice, eyi-tetrahedral kune-cubic egxile ebusweni. Ukulinganisa kwamva nje kubonisa ukuba idlula idayimani nge-18% ngokobulukhuni.

Lonsdaleite

I-Lonsdaleite yiminerali ebunzima bayo bungumxholo onomdla, ngokukodwa kwintsimi yophando lwe-meteorite. Ukuba besinomfanekiso-ngqondweni wemeko apho imeteorite equlathe ikharbhon, ngokukodwa igraphite, yangena kwi-atmosfera yoMhlaba yaza yadibana neplanethi yethu, kuya kuba sengqiqweni ukucinga ukuba lo mzimba unokuba shushu kakhulu xa kukho impembelelo. Nangona kunjalo, inyani yeyokuba kuphela ngamaleko angaphandle e-meteorite anokuba phantsi kokufudumeza, ngelixa ingaphakathi lihlala libandayo kuhambo lwalo oluya eMhlabeni.

Phezu kwempembelelo, amandla angaphakathi asetyenziswayo awanakuthelekiswa nayo nayiphi na enye isenzeko sendalo kumphezulu woMhlaba. Olu xinzelelo lukhulu lubangela ukuba igraphite iguquke, okukhokelela kulwakhiwo oluyikristale kakhulu. Ngokungafaniyo nedayimane, esi sakhiwo asiyocubic kodwa i-hexagonal, evelisa ubulukhuni obudlula idayimani ngama-58%.

Dyneema

I-Dyneema yifiber eyaziwa ngokuba yomelele kunentsimbi. Ukuhamba kwizinto zendalo, siya kuqhubela phambili kwizinto zokwenziwa. Xa uthetha ngeDyneema, kubalulekile ukuba uqaphele ukuba i-polymer ye-thermoplastic polyethylene eneempawu ezingavamile: ubunzima bayo be-molecular buphezulu kakhulu. Uninzi lweeathom luqulathe amatyathanga eathom anenani lilonke lamawaka ambalwa eeyunithi ubunzima beathom (iiprotoni kunye/okanye neutron).

Nangona kunjalo, i-UHMWPE (i-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene) iqulethe amatyathanga ane-molecular mass yezigidi zeeyunithi ze-atomic mass. Amatyathanga amade anjalo akhokelela kunxibelelwano oluphuculweyo lwe-intermolecular, ekugqibeleni ludala iDyneema, into eyomeleleyo ngokumangalisayo. Ngapha koko, inokumelana nempembelelo ephezulu yazo zonke i-thermoplastics ezaziwayo. Esi sixhobo somelele kangangokuba sidlula zonke ezinye iintambo kunye neentambo zokutsala kwimarike. Iyakwazi nokumisa iimbumbulu nangona ilula kunamanzi. Enyanisweni, i-Dyneema inamandla alishumi elinesihlanu kunomlinganiselo olinganayo wensimbi.

I-amorphous metallic alloy okanye iglasi yentsimbi

izinto ezinzima kakhulu

Iimpawu ezimbini ezibalulekileyo zazo zonke izinto eziphathekayo ngamandla, okanye umthamo wamandla anokumelana nawo, kunye nokuqina, okanye ukukwazi ukumelana nokwaphuka. Sisebenzisa i-ceramics njengomzekelo: yomelele, kodwa ayinzima kakhulu; Bangakwazi ukuphuka nokuba nefuthe elincinci. Nangona kunjalo, iqela lezenzululwazi kunye nabaphandi bafumanisa ngo-2011 uhlobo olutsha lweglasi ye-microalloy, eyenziwe ngezinto ezintlanu: i-phosphorus, i-silicon, i-germanium, isilivere kunye ne-palladium. Ezi zinto zintsha zomelele kunentsimbi.

I-Buckypaper

Ukususela ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-2, kuye kwafunyaniswa ukuba kukho uhlobo lwekhabhoni oluxhathisayo kunedayimani: i-carbon nanotubes. Ngokucwangcisa iiathom zekhabhoni kwimilo enehexagonal, kufunyanwa ulwakhiwo oluqinileyo lwecylindrical oluzinze ngakumbi kunaso nasiphi na esinye isakhiwo esifunyenwe ngumntu. Inanotube nganye iphakathi kweenanometer ezi-4 ukuya kwezi-10 ububanzi, kodwa nganye yomelele ngokumangalisayo kwaye yomelele. I-Carbon nanotubes inobunzima be-XNUMX% kuphela yentsimbi, kodwa amandla abo ngamakhulu amaxesha amakhulu. Zikwanokumelana nomlilo, zine-thermal conductivity egqwesileyo kwaye zinobuchule obubonakalayo bokukhusela i-electromagnetic. Esi sixhobo sinezicelo ezahlukeneyo kwiinkalo ezifana nefiziksi yemathiriyeli, i-elektroniki, itekhnoloji yasemkhosini kunye nebhayoloji.

Njengoko ubona, kukho izinto eziye zasusa idayimani njengeyona nto inzima emhlabeni. Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neyona nto inzima kwihlabathi kunye neempawu zayo.


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