Eyona milambo inamandla ehlabathini

imilambo ehamba ngakumbi

Imilambo ibisoloko ingumthombo osisiseko wobomi kuphuhliso lomntu, njengoko kungqinwa sisibakala sokuba izigidi zabantu ziye zakhula kufutshane okanye ecaleni kwazo. Unikezelo lwamanzi amatsha lunesigqibo sokusetyenziswa kwabemi kunye nokulima, ukuloba okanye ukuzingela izilwanyana zasekhaya, kwaye nanamhlanje siyaqhubeka sixhomekeke ngokuyinxalenye kubo. Ngoxa imilambo idla ngokuphumela elwandle, elwandle, okanye komnye umlambo, maxa wambi iye yoma xa kukho into ethintela ukuba idibane namanye amanzi. Ubungakanani bamanzi ajikeleza kubo yinto esiyibiza ngokuba yi-flow. I eyona milambo inamandla ehlabathini Ngabo abanomlinganiselo omninzi wamanzi ajikelezayo kubo.

Kweli nqaku siza kwenza kwaziwe ukuba yeyiphi imilambo emikhulu emhlabeni kunye neempawu zayo eziphambili.

Iimpawu zemilambo emikhulu emhlabeni

Umlambo iAmazon

Imilambo yimijelo yamanzi, ilandela indlela yayo ngokusebenzisa imijelo, ukuze ingahlali, kodwa ishukume kwaye ivelise amandla. Bakwangabaqingqi bomhlaba. Ezi ndawo zilandelayo zomlambo zinokuchongwa:

  • Imvelaphi Le yindawo yokuqala yomlambo, enokuba ngamanzi emithombo, i-glacial meltwater, ichibi, okanye amanzi aphantsi komhlaba. Ithanda ukuba ngumhlaba ophakamileyo apho imilambo iqukuqela ihla kumathambeka.
  • Boca. Kulapho uphela khona umlambo kwaye udibanise ulwandle, ulwandle, okanye amanye amanzi anje ngechibi okanye ichibi.
  • Intsebenziswano. Kulapho kuhlangana khona imilambo emibini.
  • Irhafu. Umlambo omncinci okanye umlambo odityaniswe nomlambo.
  • indawo yamanzi. Indawo nganye itsalwa ngumlambo. Ezi zitya zimbini zahlulwe ngomgca wokuhlula ("isitya" ngokufutshane) ophawula umda wejografi phakathi kwezi zimbini.
  • umjelokazi. Indlela emxinwa eyenziwa sisenzo samanzi; umlambo uhamba kumjelo, kwaye umendo womlambo ubizwa ngokuthi "indlela".
  • Ibhedi. Umjelo ongezantsi.
  • amanxweme. Njengoko igama labo libonisa, zingamaphethelo omlambo kumacala omabini omjelo.

Imilambo nayo "yondliwa" ngamanzi aphuma elwandle. Ukunkcenkceshelwa ngamanzi emvula aphuma phezu komhlaba kodwa anokufikelela emilanjeni.

Eyona milambo inamandla ehlabathini

imilambo emikhulu ehlabathini kunye nende kakhulu

Umlambo iGanges

I-Ganges kunye ne-tributaries yayo yi-icon engathandabuzekiyo xa isiza eIndiya, ikhupha isitya esichumileyo esingaphezulu kwe-900.000 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha ezixhasa abantu abaninzi. Ibekwe kwindawo yokugqibela kuluhlu ngesantya sokuhamba kwe-14.270 m³/s, nangona inqanaba layo longcoliseko liyibeka phezulu kweyona milambo ili-10 ingcoliseke kakhulu ehlabathini.

Nangona kuye kwaqaliswa amanyathelo awohlukeneyo okunyanga amanzi ayo nokuwathintela ekubeni angaqhubeki ebangela amanqanaba aphezulu okungcoliseka kolwandle (iikhilogram ezingama-545 ezigidi zenkunkuma yeplastiki ngonyaka), zonke aziphumelelanga. IGanges ngumlambo wamazwe ngamazwe osuka kwintshona yeHimalaya kwaye uhamba phakathi kweIndiya neBangladesh.

umlambo lena

Umlambo weLena ngumlambo omde, esinokuwufumana eSiberia, ohamba nge-Irkutsk Oblast kunye neRiphabhliki yaseSakha, kwaye ekugqibeleni ujoyine uLwandle lwaseLaptev (uLwandle lweArctic), ukwenza idelta ye-10.800 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha.

Phezu kwayo nje imvula encinane kulo mmandla, ukuqukuqela kweSeine kuhleli kwi-16.400 cubic metres ngomzuzwana, umlambo wesithoba ngobukhulu ehlabathini. Umlambo weLena unomtsalane wokutyelela onomdla, i-Lena Pillars, eziyimibhobho yamatye emanxwemeni omlambo, ejikelezwe ngamabali kunye neengcamango.

UMlambo iMississippi

UMlambo iMississippi udume ngokubaleka ukuya kuthi ga kwi-10 yamazwe aphakathi (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana), Amazwe ali-10 abekwe njengowona mlambo mkhulu wesibhozo emhlabeni ohamba nge-18.000 m³/s.

Yayisele iyinto ebalulekileyo yophuhliso lwabemi eencinci yangaphambi kweColumbian, kodwa namhlanje ihleli ingumqolo wezoqoqosho nenkcubeko eUnited States. Ngobude beekhilomitha ezingama-6.275 (ukuba siqwalasela inkqubo ye-Mississippi-Missouri), ngumlambo wesine omde emhlabeni.

Río de la Plata

I-Río de la Plata inendawo enkulu ye-hydrological basin (yesibini ngobukhulu eMzantsi Melika) edibanisa amanzi emilambo yaseParaná kunye ne-Uruguay, imanyano yayo ibumba, kunye nemimandla eyahlukeneyo kunye nemigxobhozo. Yathiywa ngoMlambo iYordan ngu-Amerigo Vespucci, kodwa kamva iimpembelelo zasekuhlaleni zanika igama esilaziyo namhlanje.

Ukufikelela kwayo phezulu naphakathi akunzulu kwaye akukho kungena kwetyuwa, kodwa ukusuka ePunta del Este e-Uruguay ukuya eSamboronbón Bay eArgentina, ekubeni le nxalenye sele iyichweba laselwandle, ubunzulu bayo buyanda kwaye ubutyuwa bayo buyanda kakhulu. eAtlantiki. Imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-325 ubude, inommandla oziikhilomitha ezingama-234 kwindawo yawo ebanzi kwaye Inomndilili wokuhamba kwe-22.000 cubic metres ngomzuzwana.

umlambo omnyama

I-Rio Negro, nangona yesithandathu kolu luhlu, yeyona inkulu kuwo onke ama-tributaries ase-Amazon, kunye nomlambo omkhulu wamanzi amnyama emhlabeni. Izalelwa eColombia, kumhlaba ongaphantsi waseGuayana, apho yaziwa ngokuba nguMlambo iGuainha, nokwadlula eVenezuela kwaye uqukuqela ungene eBrazil ukuya kwiphondo laseAmazonas, apho udibana nomlambo omkhulu onegama elifanayo.

Inobude obuziikhilomitha ezingama-2.250 nobunzulu malunga neemitha ezingama-80 eziguquguqukayo, okukhokelela kwisantya sokuhamba kwe-29.300 cubic metres ngomzuzwana.

Umlambo waseMadeira

Umlambo iMadeira ngomnye wemithombo emikhulu yeAmazon, kunye nobude obuziikhilomitha ezingama-3.250 zizonke kunye nokuhamba kwe-31.200 cubic metres ngomzuzwana. Ukwaziwa ngokuba nguMlambo iCuyari, uqukuqela utyhutyha emantla oMzantsi Melika, usenza umda oziikhilomitha ezili-100 phakathi kweBolivia neBrazil, kwaye unokuhamba ngeenqanawa zaselwandle phantse unyaka wonke.

Namhlanje kuseyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezoqoqosho kuba ukongeza kwiintlobo ze-900 zentlanzi esinokuzifumana kuyo yonke inkqubo, iPort Velho yindawo ebaluleke kakhulu yorhwebo kunye nokubonelela kwezinye izixeko zaseBrazil. Ngokungafaniyo neminye imilambo, iMadeira ayiqukuqeleli kulo naluphi na ulwandle, kodwa iye kwiAmazon.

Umlambo waseYangtze

Nangona ngowona mlambo mde eTshayina, ukuguqulelwa ngokoqobo kwegama layo njenge "Long River" akulolize, umlambo wesithathu ubude emhlabeni, uMlambo iYangtze ngumlambo wesine ngobukhulu emhlabeni kunye ne-31.900 cubic metres ngomzuzwana. Umlambo ugeleza elwandle emva kokudlula kumaphondo e-10 e-China, kwaye phezu 70% irayisi kunye nemveliso yentlanzi kwenzeka kwisitya.

Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwemizi-mveliso kunye nekhaya, umlambo okwangoku ujongene nongcoliseko olungazinzanga kwaye uchaphazela kakhulu izityalo kunye nezilwanyana ezixhomekeke kuwo.

Umlambo iOrinoco

Umlambo i-Orinoco ngomnye weyona milambo ibalulekileyo eMzantsi Melika kwaye unempembelelo enkulu yezembali nezoqoqosho eVenezuela, apho uqukuqela khona ubukhulu becala. Ubude bubonke bungaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-2.000 kunye nokuhamba yi-33.000 cubic metres ngomzuzwana, kwindawo yesithathu ehlabathini.

Elinye lamakhubalo alo mlambo ngawo onke amabali amangalisayo kunye neentsomi ezibaliswayo ukusuka kumthombo eVenezuela ukuya emlonyeni wayo kuLwandle lweAtlantiki, njengeLitye eliMbindi, ukufunyanwa kweToninas (ihlengesi elipinki) okanye iHydra engaqondakaliyo.

IRío Kongo

UMlambo iCongo owawusakuba nguMlambo iZaire, ngumlambo waseMbindi Afrika oqukuqela kumazwe amane (iZambia, iDemocratic Republic of the Congo, iAngola, neRiphabhlikhi yaseCongo) ngumlambo wesibini ngobukhulu ehlabathini (41.800 m³/s). Ubude bayo buthetha ukuba inqumla i-ikhweyitha kabini kwindlela yayo, ekwahamba phakathi kweKisangani neChibi iMalebo.

Indawo yokungena yayo ijonge kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki, kodwa ezinye iingxangxasi ezisekupheleni kwesitrato sayo zithintela ukungena emlanjeni ukusuka elwandle.

KuMlambo i-Amazon

eyona milambo inamandla ehlabathini

Owona mlambo ubalulekileyo nowaziwayo kwiplanethi yethu njengoko ubambe iwonga lowona mde kwaye unamandla (250.000 m³/s) kuyo yonke imilambo esemhlabeni. Ingaphezu kweekhilomitha ezingama-7.000 XNUMX ubude yaye inokuhamba kumazwe asithoba akuMzantsi Merika.

Ummandla womlambo iAmazon ugxininisa kwisihlanu samanzi acocekileyo ewonke asemhlabeni, umlomo wawo ukuLwandlekazi lweAtlantiki, ngumthombo wobomi bamahlathi aseAmazon. Ikharbon diokside ikhona kwiatmosfera yethu.

Yonke le milambo inempembelelo enkulu, kungekuphela nje kwimimandla equkuqela kuyo, kodwa nakwiilwandle equkuqela kuyo, njengoko imele umthombo omkhulu we-hydrology kunye nobutyebi bendalo obubalulekileyo bezityalo nezilwanyana kwihlabathi jikelele. Ukongeza, zineziphumo ezibalulekileyo kwimijikelo kunye neenkqubo zeplanethi yethu, amanqanaba aphezulu ongcoliseko, njengakwimeko yeGanges, banokuba neziphumo ezibi kakhulu ngaphandle kommandla wabo. Amanzi ngowona mthombo wobomi kwisijikelezi-langa sethu kwaye kufuneka siwathande ngazo zonke iintlobo zawo, ukusuka emilanjeni namachibi ukuya kwiilwandlekazi neelwandle, kuba zonke iintlobo zobomi zixhomekeke kuwo ukuze ziphile kwasekuqaleni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nemilambo emikhulu emhlabeni kunye neempawu zabo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1.   Cesar sitsho

    Ndiyaphinda ndithi ndihlala ndiluqonda ulwazi oluxabiseke kangaka olusinika lona olutyebisa ubomi bethu bemihla ngemihla... Molweni