INtaba iMerapi

Intaba-mlilo yemerapi

IMount Merapi yintaba-mlilo esebenzayo ekuMbindi weJava, eIndonesia, malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-30 kumantla eYogyakarta, esi sixeko sinabemi abangaphezu kwama-500.000. Ichongiwe njengenye yezona ntaba-mlilo ziqhumayo ehlabathini, ikakhulu ngenxa yokuba ikwindawo yokunciphisa. Ngaphaya koko, yeyona ntaba-mlilo isebenzayo kuzo zonke iintaba-mlilo eIndonesia.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neNtaba iMerapi, ziphi iimpawu zayo, ukuqhuma kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

entabeni yemerapi

I-Gunung Merapi, njengoko yaziwa kwilizwe layo, ihlelwa njenge-stratovolcano okanye i-volcano edibeneyo eyakhiwe kwi-lava flows eyagxothwa kwizigidi zeminyaka. IGlobal Volcanic Activity Programme ithi imi kumgama weemitha ezingama-2.968 2.911 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, nangona iUnited States Geological Survey iyikhankanya kuziimitha ezingama-2010 XNUMX. Le milinganiselo ayichanekanga, kuba ukuqhubeka nokusebenza kwentaba-mlilo kuya kuzitshintsha. Ngoku isezantsi kunogqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu olwenzeka phambi ko-XNUMX.

Igama elithi "Merapi" lithetha "iNtaba yoMlilo." Imi kufutshane nommandla onabemi abaninzi, kwaye ubushushu bogqabhuko-dubulo buyenze yafumana indawo kwishumi leminyaka leentaba-mlilo, nto leyo eyenza ukuba ibe yenye yezona ntaba-mlilo zili-16 ezihlolisiswe kakhulu ehlabathini. Nangona kukho ingozi, amaJavane azizityebi kwiintsomi kunye neentsomi, ukongezelela, ubuhle bawo bendalo obucacileyo buhonjiswe emazantsi ohlaza oluxineneyo kwaye likhaya lezilwanyana ezininzi.

Ukusekwa kweNtaba iMerapi

intaba-mlilo esebenzayo

I-Merapi ikwindawo yokuthotywa apho ipleyiti ye-Indian-Australian itshona ngaphantsi kwepleyiti yeSunda (okanye iprobe). Indawo yokuthotywa yindawo apho ipleyiti izika ngaphantsi kwenye ipleyiti, ibangela iinyikima kunye / okanye intaba-mlilo. Izinto ezenza iipleyiti zityhala i-magma isuke kumbindi womhlaba, idale uxinzelelo olukhulu, inyanzele ukuba inyukele phezulu de uqweqwe lwazo lugqabhuke kwaye lwenze intaba-mlilo.

Ukusuka kwimbono yejoloji, iMerapi ngabona bantu bancinci kumazantsi eJava. Ukudubula kwayo kusenokuba kwaqala kwiminyaka engama-400.000 eyadlulayo kwaye ukususela ngoko kuye kwaphawulwa ngokuziphatha kwayo ngogonyamelo. Udaka olubonakalayo kunye nezinto eziqinileyo ezithe zakhutshwa ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo ezifunjwe ngokwemigangatho kwaye umphezulu womelela, zenza ubume obuqhelekileyo bentaba-mlilo. Ukulandela ukubonakala kwayo, iMerapi yaqhubeka ikhula ngexesha lePleistocene de kube malunga neminyaka engama-2,000 eyadlulayo ukuwa kwesakhiwo esikhulu kwenzeka.

Ugqabhuko-dubulo lweNtaba iMerapi

intaba-mlilo eIndonesia

Inembali ende yogqabhuko-dubulo olunobundlobongela. Kuye kwakho ugqabhuko-dubulo izihlandlo ezingama-68 ukususela ngowe-1548, yaye ebudeni bobukho balo, kuye kwakho iintaba-mlilo ezili-102 eziqinisekisiweyo ehlabathini. Ihlala ifumana ugqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu kunye nokuhamba kwepyroclastic, kodwa ngokuhamba kwexesha, ziye ziqhume ngakumbi kwaye zenze idome yelava, iplagi emise okwesangqa.

Ngokuqhelekileyo i-rash encinci yonke iminyaka emi-2-3 kunye ne-rash enkulu yonke iminyaka eyi-10-15. I-Pyroclastic flows eyenziwe ngothuthu, igesi, ilitye le-pumice kunye nezinye iziqhekeza zamatye ziyingozi kakhulu kune-lava, kuba zinokuhla ngesantya esingaphezu kwe-150 yeekhilomitha ngeyure kwaye zifikelele kwiindawo ezinkulu, zibangele umonakalo opheleleyo okanye inxalenye. Ingxaki ngeMerapi kukuba ibekwe kwenye yezona ndawo zinabantu abaninzi e-Indonesia, inabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-24 kumgama oziikhilomitha ezili-100.

Olona gqabhuko-dubulo lunzima kakhulu lwenzeka ngo-1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, no-2010. Ugqabhuko-dubulo ngo-1006 lwalunamandla kangangokuba kwakukholelwa ukuba luye lwakhokelela ekupheleni koBukumkani baseMataram, nangona kungekho bungqina baneleyo bokuxhasa le nkolelo. . . Nangona kunjalo, unyaka ka-2010 ube ngowona nyaka umbi wenkulungwane yama-353, uchaphazela amawaka abantu, utshabalalisa iihektare zezityalo kwaye wabulala abantu abangama-XNUMX.

Lo mnyhadala uqale kweyeDwarha kwaye uqhube de kwangoDisemba. Yavelisa iinyikima, ugqabhuko-dubulo (kungekhona nje enye), i-avalanches eshushu, i-volcanic landlides, i-pyroclastic flows, amafu ashinyeneyo othuthu lwentaba-mlilo, kunye neebhola zomlilo ezibangele abantu abamalunga nama-350.000 ukuba bashiye amakhaya abo. Ekugqibeleni, yaba yenye yeentlekele zemvelo ezinkulu e-Indonesia kwiminyaka yakutshanje.

Irhashalala yakutsha nje

Eyona ntaba-mlilo yase-Indonesia iphinde yagqabhuka kwakhona ngoMvulo, nge-16 ka-Agasti, i-2021, ikhupha imilambo yodaka kunye namafu egesi ukusuka ezantsi kwentaba kwisiqithi esinabemi abaninzi saseJava, esinabela ngaphesheya kwe-3,5, iikhilomitha ezi-2 (iikhilomitha ezi-XNUMX).

Umgqumo wokudubula kwentaba-mlilo unokuvakala kwiikhilomitha eziliqela ukusuka kwiNtaba iMerapi, kwaye uthuthu lwentaba-mlilo olwagqabhuka kwintaba-mlilo lumalunga neemitha ezingama-600 (malunga neemitha ezingama-2000) ukuphakama. Uthuthu lwagquma abahlali abakufutshane, nangona umyalelo wokufuduka wakudala wawusasebenza kufutshane necrater, ngoko ke akukho ngxwelerha zixeliweyo.

Umlawuli we-Yogyakarta Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Centre, uHanik Humeda, uthe lo ngowona mkhulu wokuphefumla ovela eMount Merapi ukusukela oko abasemagunyeni baphakamisa inqanaba lengozi ngoNovemba kulo nyaka uphelileyo.

Idome ekumzantsi-ntshona kuqikelelwa ukuba inomthamo we-1,8 million cubic metres (66,9 million cubic feet) kunye nobude obuziimitha ezi-3 (9,8 feet). Emva koko iye yawa ngokuyinxenye kusasa ngoMvulo, iqhuma i-pyroclastic equkuqela ukusuka kumzantsi-ntshona wentaba ubuncinane kabini.

Emini, ubuncinci ezinye izixa-mali ezincinci zepyroclastic ziqhambuke, zisihla malunga neekhilomitha ezi-1,5 (imayile enye) ecaleni kwethambeka elikumazantsi-ntshona. Le ntaba yeemitha ezingama-1 (i-2.968-foot) ibekwe kufutshane neYogyakarta, isixeko sakudala esinabemi bamakhulu amawaka kwindawo yedolophu yaseJava Island. Kangangeenkulungwane, esi sixeko besiliziko lenkcubeko yaseJavane kunye nesihlalo sosapho lwasebukhosini.

Imeko ye-alert ye-Merapi iye yahlala kwinqanaba lesibini lemingcipheko emine ukususela oko yaqala ukugqabhuka ngoNovemba ophelileyo, kwaye i-Indonesian Geological and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Centre ayizange iphakamise nangona umsebenzi owandisiweyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neNtaba iMerapi kunye neempawu zayo.


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