River Ganges

emigqumeni yomlambo

Enye yemilambo ebaluleke kakhulu kwilizwekazi laseAsia nakwihlabathi yi Umlambo iGanges. Ngomnye wemilambo ethathwa njengengcwele kubuHindu, kunye nesixhenxe esipheleleyo. Inolwandiso olungaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-2.500 XNUMX kwaye iqala ukuhamba kwayo eIndiya kwaye iphelela eBangladesh. Ngesi sizathu, inikwe itayitile yosuku lwamanye amazwe.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela zonke iimpawu, ungcoliseko, iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zoMlambo iGanges.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ungcoliseko lomlambo iGanges

Ngaphandle kokubaluleka kwembali, inkcubeko kunye nokuziphilisa, umlambo usangcoliswe kakhulu kuba ufumana isixa esikhulu senkunkuma yabantu ethi ekugqibeleni ingene elwandle. Oku kuyenza ibe yenye yezona zinto ziphambili kungcoliseko lweplastiki kwinqanaba lolwandle.

Njengomzi-mveliso wokhenketho obaluleke kakhulu kwingeniso yezoqoqosho e-India, umlambo iGanges yenye yeempawu zabantu basemzini. Ibhayisekile okanye ezinye iindlela zothutho ezisuka apho zivela khona ziye kuthi ga kumda othile yenye yezona zinto ziqhelekileyo zutsala abakhenkethi.

Lo mlambo, ekuqaleni owawubizwa ngokuba yiRio Blanco, waphulukana nombala ngenxa yongcoliseko kwaye wanika indawo eluhlaza okwangoku. Indlela yayo imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-2.500 16.648 ubude, kunye nokuhamba okuphakathi kwe-XNUMX yeekyubhi zemitha ngomzuzwana, ezinokwahluka ngokwamaxesha onyaka. Indawo leyo ziikhilomitha ezingama-907.000 zeekhilomitha.

Ibhedi yomlambo yondliwa yimirhumo emininzi, ebonakaliswa ziintlenge, kwaye ubunzulu buqikelelwa phakathi kwe-16 ukuya kwi-30 m. Nangona ungowona mlambo mde emhlabeni, ungowona mlambo ubalulekileyo eIndiya kwaye ama-80% emilambo iseIndiya. Yahlulwe yaziingalo ezincinci nezikhulu kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zendlela yayo, isenza uthungelwano olunzima lwamajelo, olumele umtsalane obonakalayo, kwaye usemlonyeni.

Okwangoku luthe saa kakhulu. kukho ingqikelelo ye-1,5 yezigidi zeebhakteria ze-coliform nge-100 ml, ezingama-500 zazo zilungele ukhuseleko kwigumbi lokuhlambela. Ukongeza, uphononongo lubonise ukuba ihlambe i-545 yezigidi zeekhilogram zenkunkuma yeplastiki elwandle. Umlambo iGanges usetyenziselwe ukubonelela abahlali ngobomi obungabizi kakhulu kunye namanzi emihla ngemihla ngokusebenzisa imijelo kunye neenkqubo zokunkcenkceshela. Kukho amadama asendleleni yokusa amanzi kwenye indawo.

Ungcoliseko loMlambo iGanges noMngcipheko

Izidumbu eziphoswe emlanjeni

Nangona uMlambo iGanges uthathwa njengendawo engcwele kwaye unembali ebalulekileyo kwezembali, kwezoqoqosho nakwezokhenketho, uMlambo iGanges ungcoliswe ngokumasikizi. Abo bahlamba emanzini ayo ngabom okanye ngokungazi abakwazi oku. Ezinye zezona zinto zingcolisayo eziqhelekileyo esinokuzifumana kulo mlambo zezi zilandelayo:

  • Ukungakwazi kwabantu ukulahla inkunkuma ngokufanelekileyo
  • Iifektri ezikufutshane nezo zingcolisa enye yezona zinto zixabisekileyo, ukungcola kuthwalwa kuwo wonke umlambo.
  • Izityalo ezikhupha umbane zilahla inkunkuma kwaye ziyiphatha gwenxa indalo.
  • Imithendeleko kunye nemibhiyozo yenkolo yaphosa imizimba yaphoswa emlanjeni kwaye ukubola kwabo kuphelela ekungcoleni amanzi.

Ngoo-1980, umntu othile waqala iphulo lokucoca iGanges, kodwa ngenxa yokungazi kunye nenzondelelo yempambano yabantu, khange ibe nempembelelo enkulu. Ngo-2014, umxholo waphinda wakhuthazwa ngendlela enamandla ngakumbi, kodwa awuzange uvelise ziphumo zihle kakhulu.

Ungcoliseko yingxaki enkulu echaphazela imilambo, ebeka abantu abayisebenzisayo kunye nezinto eziphilayo ezisemanzini abo emngciphekweni. Nangona kunjalo, ayisiyiyo kuphela into egrogrisa iGanges, ukunqongophala kwamanzi kunye nokumbiwa ngokungekho mthethweni kuyayisongela.

Ngamaxesha athile, ubunzulu beli bhaskiti bafikelela kwiimitha ezingama-60, kodwa ngoku incitshisiwe yaziimitha ezili-10. Ukugrumba kunye nokukhupha amanzi omhlaba kwenziwe ukusombulula le ngxaki, kodwa iziphumo ezibi zisaqhubeka.

Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zomlambo iGanges

Ungcoliseko lomlambo ongcwele

Ngenxa yophuhliso lwezolimo kumjelo waseGanges, phantse lonke utyani lwawo lokuqala lwamahlathi luye lwanyamalala. Kuyabonakala ukuba yiRobusta Shorea kuphela eye yakwazi ukumelana nomphezulu kunye neBombax ceiba emazantsi. Ubukho obomeleleyo babantu kunye nefuthe lemozulu kule ndawo kuthintela uhlaza oluninzi ekuphuhliseni. Nangona kunjalo, kunxweme lwaseGanges, Kuyenzeka ukuba ufumane indawo yokugcina i-mangrove eshinyeneyo kwiSundarbans.

Ezi meko zinje, iimeko zabantu nezemozulu, ukongeza kungcoliseko lwamanzi, zinefuthe elibi kubukho bezilwanyana eGanges. Kuphela ngamathambeka eHimalaya naseGanges Delta aneendawo ezizolileyo ngaphandle kokuphazamiseka okubangelwa ngabantu.

Inxalenye ephezulu yethafa likhaya lemikhombe yaseIndiya, iindlovu zaseAsia, izingwe zaseBengal, iingonyama zaseIndiya, ii <em> sloths neenyathi. Okwangoku zifumaneka kuphela iindidi ezifana nengcuka yaseIndiya, impungutye ebomvu kunye nempungutye yeBengal kunye nodyakalashe wegolide.

Phakathi kweentaka kukho iziphaluka, umqhagi, amagwababa, iinkwenkwezi kunye namadada afudukayo ebusika. Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokuphela ziquka inyamakazi eneempondo ezine, i-Indian bustard, i-bustard encinci, kunye nehlengethwa lesilwanyana sasemanzini soMlambo iGanges eIndiya.

Izilwanyana zommandla osezantsi azifani kakhulu nezilwanyana zommandla ophezulu, nangona iintlobo ezinje nge-Indian civet enkulu kunye ne-otter egudileyo ziye zongezwa. Ingwe yaseBengal inendawo ekhuselweyo kunxweme lwaseGanges. Kuqikelelwa ukuba kukho iintlobo ezingama-350 zeentlanzi emanzini ayo.

Phakathi kwezirhubuluzi, iingwenya zezona zibalaseleyo, ezinjengeengwenya zomgxobhozo neengwenya; kunye Ufudo, ezifana Ufudo enemigca emithathu, Indian ufudo emnyama, ingxilimbela Cantor ufudo, Indian softshell ufudo, njl

Njengoko ubona, omnye weyona milambo ithandwayo kwihlabathi ungcoliswe ngokupheleleyo kwaye ulahlekelwe zizinto eziphilayo. Nokuba yinkcubeko okanye uphuhliso lwezoqoqosho, abantu bayichaphazela kakubi imeko-bume yendalo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noMlambo iGanges kunye neempawu zawo.


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