Awona machweba anomtsalane ehlabathini

amachweba amakhulu

Ekudibaneni kwemilambo nolwandle, i-ecosystem eyaziwa ngokuba ngamachweba iyavela. Le mimandla yonxweme ibaluleke kakhulu kubomi baselwandle nakubantu, iqhayisa ngeentlobo-ntlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana eziphilayo ezimangalisayo nokubonelela ngeenkonzo ezibalulekileyo zenkqubo yendalo. Siza kugocagoca kwiimpawu ezikhethekileyo zamachweba kunye negalelo lawo elisisiseko ekugcineni ulungelelwaniso lwendalo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba yintoni na amachweba anomtsalane ehlabathini kunye nokubaluleka kwayo kwendalo.

Iimpawu zamachweba

amachweba

Amachweba, ukuhlangana kwamanzi acocekileyo namanzi olwandle, asebenza njengonxibelelwano lwendalo phakathi kwemilambo neelwandle. Le mimandla ibonisa iimeko ezahlukeneyo zokusingqongileyo ngenxa yokuguquguquka kwamanqanaba etyuwa kunye nokuhla nokuhamba kwamaza. Amachweba ayahluka kwi ubukhulu kunye nokumila, ukusuka kwiindawo ezincinci ukuya kwiindawo ezinkulu zomlambo, nganye ineseti yayo yeempawu ezizodwa.

Amachweba avela ngothotho lweziganeko ngokuthe ngcembe nezintsonkothileyo, eziqala ngokhukuliseko lomhlaba kunye nokuthuthwa kwentlenga yimilambo elandelayo. Njengoko le milambo isiya ngaselwandle, amandla amanzi aye ayancipha ngenxa yeepateni zamaza nokumila konxweme. Oku kuhla kwesantya kuvumela intlenga ukuba izinze kwaye iqokelelane kufutshane nomlambo, nto leyo ebangela ukuba kuvele imivalo yentlabathi kunye nemivalo yegrabile. Ixesha elidlulele, Oku kuqokelelana kwentlenga kuyakhula kwaye kubangele uphawu olulodwa lwamachweba aziwa ngokuba ziidaka ezinodaka.

Ukwakheka nokusebenza kwamachweba kuxhomekeke kakhulu kwimpembelelo yamaza. Ngokuzisa amanzi anetyuwa aphuma elwandle, amaza ayawaxuba namanzi acocekileyo avela emilanjeni. Kwimisinga ephezulu, amanzi etyuwa anyukela ngaphakathi, azalise ichweba kwaye aseke umxube wamanzi amatsha kunye netyuwa. Okuphikisanayo, Xa amaza aphantsi, amanzi ahlaziyekileyo aphuma emlanjeni aya elwandle, nto leyo ebangela ukuba amanzi anetyuwa anganeno. Oku kutshintshiselana ngokuqhubekayo kwetyuwa kunye namanzi amatsha kudlala indima ebalulekileyo ekudaleni inkqubo yendalo ephilayo nehlala itshintsha kumachweba.

Uthungelwano oluntsonkothileyo lwentsebenziswano phakathi kwamacandelo ahlukeneyo othungelwano lwendalo lwenzeka phakathi kwamachweba. Umxube wamanzi amatsha kunye namanzi anetyuwa uvelisa intaphane yeendawo zokuhlala ezahlukeneyo, kubandakanywa amagxobhozo anetyuwa, iimangrove kunye namadlelo engca yolwandle, abonelela ngenkxaso ebalulekileyo kuluhlu olubanzi lwezinto eziphilayo. Ezi nkqubo zezinto eziphilayo zisebenza njengendawo yokuhlala kunye nendawo yokuvelisa kunye ukutya koluhlu olubanzi lweentlobo, kubandakanywa iintlanzi, iintaka, ii-crustaceans kunye nezityalo zasemanzini. Ukongeza, amachweba athatha indima ebalulekileyo njengabacoci bendalo, ngokufanelekileyo ukucoca amanzi acocekileyo ngaphambi kokuba angene kulwandlekazi olukhulu.

Ukubaluleka kwendalo

amachweba anomtsalane ehlabathini

Amachweba, nangona ebaluleke ngokwendalo, ziinkqubo zezinto eziphilayo ezisesichengeni sokonakala kwaye zijongene nemingcipheko emininzi ngenxa yokubandakanyeka komntu. Ungcoliseko olusuka kwimizi-mveliso nezolimo, Ukuwohloka kwendawo yokuhlala ngenxa yokwanda okungalawulekiyo konxweme kunye nefuthe lokutshintsha kwemozulu kuzisa imiqobo emandla kulondolozo lwamachweba. Kunyanzelekile ukuphumeza imilinganiselo ejolise ekukhuseleni nasekugcineni ezi zixokelelwano zendalo zixabisekileyo, ukuqinisekisa ukuphila kwazo kwexesha elide kunye nokuphila kakuhle kwezinto eziphilayo zasemanzini kunye nabemi boluntu abaxhomekeke kuzo.

Amachweba, kunye neentlobo-ntlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana ezikhethekileyo kunye neenkonzo ezixabisekileyo ze-ikhosistim, anokubaluleka okubalulekileyo kwendalo. Isebenza njengezowuni zesithinteli ezidibanisa i-ikhosistim yasemhlabeni kunye neselwandle, le mimandla yonxweme idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekugcineni ulungelelwaniso kunye nokuphila kakuhle kwe-ikhosistim engqongileyo.

Amachweba, njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili, anobuninzi obungaqhelekanga beentlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo. Ezi ndawo zokuhlala zisebenza njengendawo yokuzalela, Iindawo zokuxheshisela ezibalulekileyo kunye neendawo zokuhlala kuluhlu olubanzi lweentlobo, kwaye zidlala indima ebalulekileyo kumjikelo wobomi bazo.

Amachweba asebenza njengendawo yokuhlala ebalulekileyo kuluhlu olubanzi lweentlobo zaselwandle namachweba, asebenza njengendawo yokugcina izilwanyana kunye neendawo zokutya. Iintlobo ezininzi zeentlanzi, kuquka isalmon, i<em>trout, i-shrimp ne-eel, zixhomekeke kumachweba ukuze zizale nanjengendawo ekhuselekileyo yamantshontsho azo. Ezi ndawo zokuhlala zibonelela ngokutya okuninzi, ukhuseleko ukusuka amarhamncwa kunye neemeko ezifanelekileyo zophuhliso lwezidalwa ezincinci. Ukongezelela, iintaka ezifudukayo zisebenzisa amachweba njengeendawo zokuphumla nezokutya ecaleni kwendlela ezifuduka ngayo.

Amachweba adlala indima ebalulekileyo njengezihluzo zendalo, ecoca amanzi acocekileyo xa esiya elwandle. Phakathi kwezi ndawo zamachweba, iibhedi zengca yolwandle, iimangrove kunye nemigxobhozo yetyuwa ibamba ngokufanelekileyo intlenga kunye nezingcolisi, iphucula umgangatho wamanzi phambi kokuba ifike kulwandle oluvulekileyo. Isebenza njengemiqobo yendalo, le miqobo ibamba izinto ezahlukeneyo ezifana nezondlo kunye nesinyithi esinzima, ukuthintela ukuthotywa komgangatho wamanzi kunye nokubonakala kwe-eutrophication kwi-ecosystems yaselwandle.

Ukukhuselwa konxweme ngumsebenzi obalulekileyo owenziwa ngamachweba. Ukhuselo lwendalo, olufana nemigxobhozo kunye nemigxobhozo yetyuwa, lusebenza njengemiqobo echasene nemikhosi etshabalalisayo yezaqhwithi kunye nezikhukhula. Ngeengcambu ezixineneyo kunye nohlaza, ezi nkqubo zendalo zikwazi ukuzinzisa umhlaba oselunxwemeni kwaye zithomalalise ukhukuliseko. Kwakhona zifunxa amandla amaza anamandla, zikhusela imimandla engaphakathi kumhlaba kwimiphumo eyingozi yezaqhwithi nemimoya ebhudla ngamandla. Ngoko ke, Kuyafuneka ukugcina amachweba ukugcina ukomelela kwemimandla yonxweme kunye nokukhusela intlalontle yoluntu olukufutshane.

Ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho kwamachweba akufuneki kujongelwe phantsi njengoko ebonelela ngezibonelelo eziluncedo kwiinjongo zorhwebo nezolonwabo. Ekubeni zininzi iindawo zokuhlala, amachweba asebenza njengendawo yokusabela kwiintlobo ngeentlobo zeentlanzi neeshellfish, ezixhasa amashishini okuloba aqhuba kakuhle. Ukongeza, amachweba atsala abakhenkethi abanomdla wokubukela iintaka, ukuloba ezemidlalo kunye nolonwabo lwendalo. inyusa uqoqosho ngokuvelisa ingeniso nokudala amathuba engqesho kwiindawo ezihlala elunxwemeni. Kucacile ukuba amachweba adlala indima ebalulekileyo ekuzinziseni uqoqosho lwengingqi nolwengingqi.

Awona machweba anomtsalane ehlabathini

amachweba ekupheleni kwemilambo

Ngalo lonke ixesha leminyaka, amachweba kunye needelta zemilambo emikhulu iye yasebenza njengeendawo eziphambili zokuhlala kwabantu, ikhuthaza ukukhula koluntu olwahlukeneyo kunye neenkcubeko eziye zaphumelela ngokuthatha ithuba lobutyebi obuninzi ababonelelayo.

Imvelaphi yeenkcubeko zakudala ezifana neJiphutha, iIndiya, iTshayina kunye nePersi inokulandwa emva kwimimandla yonxweme ekufutshane. ukuya kutsho kumlambo iNayile, iGanges, iYangtze, iTigris neEfrate.

Ezinye zeedelta eziphawulekayo ziquka i-Mississippi Delta, i-Delta yaseDanube ekummandla woLwandle oluMnyama, i-Huang Delta e-China, i-Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta e-India, i-Nayile Delta e-Egypt kunye ne-Amazon Delta esemazantsi eMelika. .

Amachweba amaninzi abonakalayo anokufumaneka kwihlabathi jikelele, kubandakanya iChesapeake Bay ecaleni konxweme olusempuma lweUnited States, iSan Francisco Bay kunxweme olusentshona, iThames kunye neSeine eYurophu, iSi-Kiang. (Hong Kong) eAsia, iMurray eOstreliya, kunye noMlambo iParaná kunye neRío de la Plata phakathi kweArgentina neUruguay.

Kule minyaka ingamashumi amane idlulileyo, oovimba be-hydrocarbon ababalulekileyo baye bafunyanwa kwidelta yomlambo i-Orinoco kunye ne-Mississippi, esebenza njengezinto zokukhuthaza inkqubela kunye nokuqhubela phambili kwezoqoqosho.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nawona machweba anomtsalane emhlabeni kunye nokubaluleka kwawo kwendalo.


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