Idama laseAswan

idama eliphezulu

Namhlanje siza kuthetha ngenye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo zobunjineli ezenziweyo kwinkulungwane yama-XNUMX. Imalunga ne- aswan idama. Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwaqala ngo-1960 kwaza kwaphela ngo-1970. Kwathatha iminyaka eli-10 yokwakha eyimfuneko ukunciphisa izikhukula zonyaka kunye neembalela ezathi zenzeka e-Egypt. Namhlanje, i-Aswan Dam iye yaba sisiseko sonikezelo lombane apho i-Egypt inokukhula khona.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu kunye nemvelaphi yeDama laseAswan.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Xa sithetha ngeDama eliPhakamileyo lase-Aswan sibhekisa kwi-Aswan High Dam. Oko kukuthi, kukho amadama amabini abizwa aphezulu naphantsi. Icala elisezantsi lincinci kakhulu ngobukhulu kwaye ngaphambili babenexesha. Ngokubona ukuba ukuwa kwakungekho kubungakanani oboneleyo bokukwazi ukunciphisa iingxaki zezikhukula kunye nembalela yamaxesha onyaka, idama elikhulu lase-Aswan lakhiwa. Kwaye idama lase-Aswan lilinganisa i-3.600 yeemitha ubude kunye ne-111 yeemitha ukuphakama. Le yenye yezona zinto zinomtsalane zokwakha ezenziwe ngabantu. Isiseko siziimitha ezingama-980 ububanzi kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe siyehla siye kuma-40 eemitha ngaphezulu.

Ukwakhiwa kwayo kwathatha izigidi ezingama-43 zeekyubhu zamatye kunye neminyaka eli-10 ukuyigqiba. Ukwakhiwa kwale ntolongo kukhokelele ekuqalekeni kweLake Nasser. Eli chibi limalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-500 ubude lide lifike kwi-16 leekhilomitha ububanzi. Inendawo engama-6.000 eekhilomitha zamanzi iyonke, eyenza elona chibi likhulu elenziwe ngabantu emhlabeni. Olu lwakhiwo lwaluyimfuneko kuba wakhankanya ukuba wayehamba neengxaki zembalela kunye nezikhukula. Izikhukula azinakunqandwa nanjengoko kwakungekho zibonelelo zazinokugcina amanzi. Kwenzeka into efanayo nangeempembelelo ezimbi zembalela. Kuba imvula ibiphantsi ngamanye amaxesha onyaka, amanzi ebengenakugcinelwa ukuhanjiswa kunye nokunkcenkceshelwa.

Ubukhulu kunye nedama eliphantsi

Indawo enezikhukula eyenze iLake Nasser yenze ukuba kunyanzeleke ukuba kufuduswe abantu abangaphezulu kwama-90.000 ukuya kuthi ga kwizikhumbuzo ezingama-24. Ezona zikhumbuzo zibaluleke kakhulu ezifuduswe ngenxa yokwenziwa kweDama i-Aswan ziitempile zika-Abu Simbel nePhilae. Idama linalo Iijenreyitha ezili-12 zamandla ombane ayi-175 yeegawathi kwaye nganye inemveliso ye-hydroelectric ye-10.000 GWh / ngonyaka. Ekuqaleni, kuba umbane wawungekho phezulu kangako, wawunakho ukubonelela ngesiqingatha sazo zonke iimfuno zase-Egypt.

Kwelinye icala, njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, kukho iAswan Dam eliqela. Idama eliphantsi le-Aswan lakhiwa ngamaBritane ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-54 kwaye liziimitha ezingama-XNUMX ukuphakama. Nangona yandiswa kabini ngekhulu lama-XNUMX, yayisele izakuphuphuma ngo-1946. Oku kungenxa yemvula enkulu ebangele izikhukula engenakukwazi ukujongana nalo. Kwakungelo xesha kanye xa umbono wokwakha idama elitsha elinomthamo omkhulu ukuze ukwazi ukunciphisa ezi ngxaki zezikhukula zaqala ukuqwalaselwa.

Abakhenkethi abaninzi bafuna ukutyelela i-Aswan Dam kwaye utyelelo lwabo luquka ukuhamba kwindlela ephezulu. Nje ukuba yonke indawo ephezulu igqunyiwe, isithuthi kufuneka simiswe kwindawo yokupaka phakathi kwesiqingatha sokwakhiwa. Ukusuka apho ungabona kumacala omabini ukungalingani kwamanzi kunye nobukhulu bedama. Alukho uhlobo olunokwenzeka lokuba ukwazi ukutyelela ngaphakathi okanye kwigumbi leinjini apho kuveliswa khona amandla ombane. Kude kube namhlanje eli damu alikabi yinxalenye yokhenketho.

Nangona olu tyelelo alunakubekwa njengolubalulekileyo, kuba kukuma nje kwemizuzu embalwa kuhlala kunomdla kukhenketho oluninzi. Ukuba le yimeko apho uthatha uhambo lokuya kwithempeli likaPhilae kunye ne-Obelisk engagqitywanga, kuyathakazelisa ukuthatha eli dama ukuze ulibone.

Imvelaphi yedama laseAswan

aswan idama

Akukho ludwe lucinezelwe lunembali ininzi njengale. Ukugqiba kwayo ukwakhiwa ngo-1970 yangena kwindawo ezilishumi eziphezulu kwezona zibanzi zamadama kunye nezikhongozeli emhlabeni. Okwangoku bakwi-8 ephezulu ngokwendawo yomhlaba kunye nakwi-4 ephezulu ngokwamandla emithombo. Eyona nto ichaphazele umhlaba emva kokwakhiwa kwawo ngumsebenzi owenziwa ngoncedo lwamazwe amaninzi ukuze akwazi ukugcina iitempile ezimangalisayo zase-Egypt ezaziselunxwemeni lomNayile.Kwaye ezi tempile zininzi kwaye zizokuntywiliselwa amanzi avela kwidama elizayo. Ngenxa yoku, amazwe angama-52 asebenzisana nomsebenzi wokuhambisa iitempile zingahoywanga isixa esikhulu semali.

Eli bali lenzeke embindini wemfazwe ebandayo apho kwakulwelwa amandla kunye neemfazwe zommandla. Ulwakhiwo lweDama laseAswan yaba yimfuduko enyanzelekileyo yamawaka abantu ekwakufuneka bafudukile. Kwakhona kwaba yimfazwe yokulwa newashi ukugcina izikhumbuzo ezikhethekileyo ezingaphezu kweminyaka engama-4.000 XNUMX ubudala.

Gcina ukhumbula ukuba i-Yiphutha yintlango engama-98% kwaye ziibhanki zeNayile kuphela ezinemihlaba enomhlaba ochumileyo. Oku kuthetha ukuba idama linokuqinisekisa unikezelo lwamanzi unyaka wonke kwaye kuthintelwe ukuphazamiseka kwizikhukula zemilambo ezingalindelekanga. Ngumsebenzi otshintshe ubomi base-Egypt. Ngaphandle kwamanzi, ingavumela umbane ukuba ufikelele kwiindawo ezingaphezu kwama-20.000 XNUMX ezazingekabi nawo. Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, kwakusele kukho idama lase-Bhritane e-Aswan kodwa yayiziimitha ezingama-30 kuphela ukuphakama kwaye yayingakwazi ukugcina amanzi aneleyo. Yayixinzezeleka rhoqo kukunyuka kweMilambo yeNayile kwaye yayinokugcina kuphela amanzi unyaka.

Ngenxa yokuba kwintloko yorhulumente omtsha, iprojekthi yeenkwenkwezi yaqala kwaye iinzame zokufumana inkxaso-mali kunye noncedo zaqala. Emva kokufumana inkxaso-mali kulwakhiwo lwepharaonic, imisebenzi yaqala. Eli dama linemisebenzi eyahlukeneyo: lifuna ukukhusela abantu kwizikhukula zembali yoMlambo umNayile, lisebenza ukugcina amanzi okunkcenkceshela nokusetyenziswa kwalo kunye nokuvelisa amandla ombane ophehlwa ngamanzi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi ngeDama lase-Aswan kunye nemvelaphi yalo.


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