IArcturus

arcturus

Ngobusuku basentwasahlobo nasekuqaleni kwehlobo, nawuphi na umkhi-mkhiqizi kwi-hemisphere esemantla woMhlaba uya kubona inkwenkwezi eqaqambileyo esibhakabhakeni, phezulu: i-orenji ebalaseleyo, edla ngokuphazamana neMars. Ngaba IArcturus, eyona nkwenkwezi iqaqambileyo kwikroza leBootes. Kwaziwa njengeyona nkwenkwezi iqaqambileyo kuwo wonke umntla wezulu.

Ke ngoko, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuyazi ngeArcturus, iimpawu zayo kunye nezinto ezinomdla.

I-Arcturus, eyona nkwenkwezi iqaqambileyo kuwo wonke umntla wezulu

inkwenkwezi ye-arturus

Baqikelela ukuba iArcturus yinkwenkwezi enkulu elumkisa ngento eza kwenzeka elangeni kwiminyaka emalunga ne-5 yeebhiliyoni. Ubukhulu obukhulu beArcturus sisiphumo sokujikeleza kwangaphakathi kwenkwenkwezi, okusisiphumo sobudala bayo. Iipesenti ezingama-90 zeenkwenkwezi esizibona esibhakabhakeni zifuna kuphela ukuzikhathaza ngokwenza into enye: guqula i-hydrogen ibe yi-helium. Xa iinkwenkwezi zisenza oku, izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zithi "kwindawo ephambili yokulandelelana." Ilanga lenza loo nto kanye. Nangona ubushushu bomphezulu welanga ingaphantsi kwama-6.000 ngokukaCelsius (okanye i-5.770 Kelvin ukuba ichaneke), ubushushu bayo obungundoqo bufikelela kwi-40 yezigidi zeedigri, ngenxa yokusabela kwe-nyukliya fusion. I-nucleus ikhula kancinci kancinci, iqokelela i-helium kuyo.

Ukuba silinda iminyaka eyi-5 yezigidigidi, ummandla ongaphakathi welanga, owona mmandla ushushu, uya kukhula ube mkhulu ngokwaneleyo ukwandisa umaleko wangaphandle njengebhaluni yomoya oshushu. Umoya oshushu okanye irhasi iya kuthatha umthamo omkhulu kwaye ilanga liya kujika libe yinkwenkwezi enkulu ebomvu. Ukuqwalasela ubunzima bayo, i-Arcturus ithatha umthamo omkhulu. Ubuninzi bayo bungaphantsi kwe-0,0005 ubuninzi belanga.

Ukutshintsha kombala kwenkwenkwezi ekhulayo kubangelwa kukuba i-nucleus ngoku inyanzelekile ukuba ifudumale indawo enkulu, efana ne-comet ezama ukufudumeza izihlandlo ezilikhulu ngesitshisi esifanayo. Ngoko ke, ubushushu bomhlaba buyancipha kwaye iinkwenkwezi zijika zibebomvu. Ukukhanya okubomvu kuhambelana nokuhla kobushushu obuphezulu malunga ne-4000 Kelvin okanye ngaphantsi. Ngokuchanekileyo, ubushushu bomphezulu we-Arcturus yi-4.290 degrees Kelvin. I-spectrum ye-Arcturus yahlukile kwiLanga, kodwa ifana kakhulu ne-spectrum ye-sunspot. I-Sunspots yimimandla "ebandayo" yeLanga, ngoko oku kuqinisekisa ukuba i-Arcturus yinkwenkwezi epholileyo.

Iimpawu zeArcturus

Amakroza

Xa inkwenkwezi ikhula ngokukhawuleza kakhulu, uxinzelelo lokucinezela i-core luya kunika encinci, kwaye ke isikhungo seenkwenkwezi siya "kuvala" okwethutyana. Nangona kunjalo, ukukhanya okuvela kwi-Arcturus kwakuqaqambile kunokuba bekulindelwe. Abanye abantu babheja oku kuthetha ukuba i-nucleus ngoku "ivuselelwe" ngokuxuba i-helium kwikhabhoni. Ewe, ngalo mzekelo, sele sisazi ukuba kutheni i-Arcturus idunjelwe kakhulu: ubushushu buyayigqithisa. I-Arcturus iphantse ibe ngama-30 amaxesha elanga kwaye, ngokumangalisayo, ubunzima bayo buphantse bufane ne-Astro Rey. Abanye baqikelela ukuba umgangatho wabo unyuke nge-50%.

Ngokwethiyori, inkwenkwezi evelisa ikhabhoni kwi-helium kwi-reaction ye-nyukliya ye-fusion ayinakukwazi ukubonisa umsebenzi wamagnetic njengelanga, kodwa i-Arcturus iya kukhupha ii-X-rays ezithambileyo, ebonisa ukuba inesithsaba esifihlakeleyo esiqhutywa yimagnethi.

Inkwenkwezi yasemzini

inkwenkwezi kunye nenkanyezi enomsila

IArcturus yeyehalo yeMilky Way. Iinkwenkwezi ezikuMyezo welanga azihambi kwinqwelo-moya ekwiMilky Way njengelanga, kodwa indlela ezijikeleza ngayo ikwinqwelo-moya etyeke kakhulu enemibhobhobhozo. Oku kunokuchaza ukuhamba kwayo ngokukhawuleza esibhakabhakeni. Ilanga lilandela ukujikeleza kweMilky Way, ngelixa iArcturus ingayilandeli. Omnye umntu wabonisa ukuba i-Arcturus inokuba ivela komnye umnyele kwaye ingqubana ne-Milky Way ngaphezu kwe-5 yezigidigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Ubuncinci ezinye iinkwenkwezi ezingama-52 zibonakala zikwi-orbits efana ne-Arcturus. Baziwa ngokuba yi "Arcturus group."

Yonke imihla, iArcturus isondela kwisixokelelwano sethu selanga, kodwa ayisondeli. Ngoku isondela malunga neekhilomitha ezi-5 ngomzuzwana. Isiqingatha sesigidi seminyaka eyadlulayo, yayiyinkwenkwezi yobukhulu besithandathu eyayiphantse ingabonakali, ngoku isiya ngaseVirgo ngesantya esingaphezu kwe-120 yeekhilomitha ngomzuzwana.

I-Bootes, i-El Boyero, liqela leenkwenkwezi elisentla ekulula ukulifumana, likhokelwa yeyona nkwenkwezi iqaqambileyo kwikroza le-Ursa Major. Uninzi lwabantu bonke banokuqonda imilo ye-skillet ezotywe phakathi komqolo weBig Dipper kunye nomsila. Umqheba wale pan ukhomba kwicala leArcturus. Yeyona nkwenkwezi ikhazimlayo kwelo cala. Abanye "abakwixesha elitsha" abanenzondelelo yempambano bakholelwa ukuba kukho ama-Arcturians, uhlanga lwasemzini oluhambele phambili kwezobuchwepheshe. Noko ke, ukuba bekukho inkqubo yesijikelezi-langa ejikeleza le nkwenkwezi, ngeyayifunyenwe kudala.

Imbali ethile

I-Arcturus ifudumeza umhlaba njengedangatye lekhandlela kumgama oziikhilomitha ezisi-8. Kodwa masingalibali ukuba kuphantse kube yi-40 light years ukusuka kuthi. Ukuba sitshintsha ilanga ngeArcturus, amehlo ethu aya kulibona ngokuphindwe kayi-113 kwaye ulusu lwethu luya kufudumala ngokukhawuleza. Ukuba yenziwe ngemitha ye-infrared sibona ukuba ikhanya ngokuphindwe ka-215 kunelanga. Xa kuthelekiswa ukukhanya kwayo yonke kunye nokukhanya kwayo okubonakalayo (ubukhulu), kuqikelelwa ukuba yiminyaka engama-37 yokukhanya ukusuka eMhlabeni. Ukuba ubushushu bomphezulu bunxulumene nobungakanani bemitha yelanga obuvelisayo, kuqikelelwa ukuba i-diameter kufuneka ibe yi-36 yezigidi zeekhilomitha, ephindwe ngama-26 amakhulu kuneLanga.

I-Arcturus yinkwenkwezi yokuqala ukuba ibekwe emini ngoncedo lweteleskopu. Isazi ngeenkwenkwezi esiphumeleleyo yayinguJean-Baptiste Morin, owasebenzisa iteleskopu encinane ephindaphindayo ngo-1635. Sinokuluphinda olu lingelo ngononophelo olukhulu, siphepha nangayiphi na indlela ukukhomba iteleskopu kufutshane nelanga. Umhla ochaziweyo wokuzama lo msebenzi ngu-Okthobha.

Xa kufikwa kwiinkwenkwezi ezingasemva, intshukumo yeArcturus iyamangalisa - i-arc yee-intshi ezi-2,29 ngonyaka. Phakathi kweenkwenkwezi eziqaqambileyo nguAlpha Centauri kuphela ohamba ngokukhawuleza. Owokuqala ukuqaphela ukunyakaza kwe-Arcturus ngu-Edmond Halley ngo-1718. Kukho izinto ezimbini ezenza ukuba inkwenkwezi ibonise ukuzihambela okubalulekileyo: isantya sayo esiphezulu sokwenyani ngokubhekiselele kwindawo eyingqongileyo kunye nokusondela kwayo kwisixokelelwano sethu selanga. I-Arcturus ihlangabezana nazo zombini ezi meko.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-Arcturus kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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