UAl-Khwarizmi

Ingcali yezibalo Al-Khwarizmi

Enye yamadoda aye anegalelo elikhulu kwisayensi ngumSilamsi ogama linguMohammed Ibn Musa abu Djafar Al-Khwarizmi. Le ndoda yayiyingcali yezibalo, isazi ngeenkwenkwezi nejografi yaye kusenokwenzeka ukuba yazalelwa kwisixeko sasePersi iKhwarizm. Esi sixeko sikumzantsi-mpuma woLwandle lweAral yaye soyisiwe kwiminyaka engama-70 ngaphambi kokuba sizalwe ngama-Arabhu. Igama elithi Al-Khwarizmi lithetha uNyana kaMoses.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela konke ukuxhaphazwa kunye nezinto ezifunyenweyo UAl-Khwarizmi kunye nebhayografi yakhe.

I-Biography

Imisebenzi ka-Al-Khwarizmi

Wazalwa ngonyaka we-780. Ngonyaka we-820 wabizelwa e-Baghdad (into esiyaziyo namhlanje njenge-Iraq) yi-caliph yase-Abbasid u-Al Mamun. Le ndoda yaziwa kuye wonke umntu ngenxa ye "Arabian Nights." INdlu yoBulumko yayakhelwe ukutyebisa inzululwazi kunye namanye amaziko emfundo yenzululwazi aye adalwa. Ezinye zezona ncwadi zibalulekileyo zentanda-bulumko zaguqulelwa kwisiArabhu. Ezi zikolo zazikwaneendawo zokuphonononga ngeenkwenkwezi.

Yonke le meko-bume yenzululwazi neenkcubeko ezininzi yenza ukuba ukufunda kuka-Al-Khwarizmi kwaba nemveliso ngakumbi. Ekugqibeleni wagqiba ekubeni anikezele zonke iincwadi zakhe kwi-algebra kunye ne-astronomy. Ezi zigqibo zaba neziphumo ezibalulekileyo kuphuhliso lwexesha elizayo lwesayensi eYurophu, ngakumbi ngeSpain.

Wenza uhambo olutyhutyha iAfghanistan, emazantsi eRashiya naseByzantium. Kubantu abaninzi, wayegqalwa njengengcali yezibalo yexesha lakhe. Kwaye imathematika lisiko elaphuhliswa ngabantu. Ke ngoko, nangona kunzima kuye wonke umntu, akunakuba nzima kunokuqonda komntu, kuba idalwe sithi. Ngaloo ntanda-bulumko, uAl-Khwarizmi wakwazi ukwenza imathematika ngobuchule obukhulu.

Wafela eBaghdad malunga nonyaka wama-850. Wayekhunjulwa njengenye yeengcali zezibalo kwimbali yonke.

Imisebenzi ka-Al-Khwarizmi

Umfanekiso oqingqiweyo ka-Al-Khwarizmi

Wavelisa imisebenzi eli-10 kwaye phantse yonke iyaziwa ngokungafaniyo nangeenguqulelo ezathi kamva zenziwa kwisiLatini. Kuphela sisihloko esaziwayo ngezinye zeencwadi zakhe yaye ezinye ezaguqulelwayo zenziwa eToledo. Le nzululwazi yayizinikele ekuqokeleleni lonke ulwazi oluyimfuneko kumaGrike namaHindu. Wayezinikele kakhulu kwimathematika, kodwa wayekwafunda ngeenkwenkwezi, ijografi, imbali kunye nokuvumisa ngeenkwenkwezi.

Kufuneka ucinge ukuba ngeli xesha isayensi ayizange iphuhliswe. Umntu unokuchitha ixesha elininzi kwizifundo ezininzi aze akwazi ukuhambela phambili kuyo. Oku kungenxa yokuba bekungekho lwazi lungako okanye ubungcali. Esi sizathu sokuba umntu abe neenkcubeko ezininzi kunye neengcali kwizifundo ezininzi. Namhlanje kukho ulwazi oluninzi kumbandela ngamnye. Unokuchitha ixesha kwisifundo okanye kwesinye. Kodwa ukuba ufuna ngokwenene ukuba yingcali kwenye, awukwazi ukugxila kwizinto ezininzi ngexesha elinye, kuba awuyi kuba nexesha lokwazi yonke into ngayo. Ngaphezu kwayo nantoni na, kuba izifundo ezitsha kunye nezinto ezifunyenweyo ziphuma yonke imihla kwaye kufuneka uhlale uzihlaziya.

Umsebenzi wakhe waziwa kakhulu kuyo yonke kunye neyona nto isetyenziswa kakhulu yayiyiTafile zeAstronomical. Ezi thebhile zazisekelwe kulwazi awayelufumene amaHindu naluthimbe apho. Ezi theyibhile ziquka algorithms ezisetyenziswa ukubala imihla kunye neminye imisebenzi trigonometric ezifana sine kunye cotangent.

Kwizibalo zakhe, yinguqulelo yesiLatini yenkulungwane ye-12 kuphela egciniweyo. Lo msebenzi uchaza ngokweenkcukacha ezinkulu yonke inkqubo yamaHindu yokubala ngokwezikhundla kwisiseko se-10. Ndiyabulela kule nkqubo yokubala unokwazi iindlela ezininzi ngakumbi zokwenza izibalo ukufezekisa iinjongo ezahlukeneyo. Kwakhona kwaziwa ukuba kwakukho indlela eyayisetyenziswa ukufumana iingcambu ezisikweri, nangona ingabonakali kolu londolozo lwesiLatini.

incwadi yealgebra

Izivumelwano zeAl-Khwarizmi

Izinto awazifumanayo kwimathematika zazibalulekile ekwaziseni iinkqubo zokubala kwilizwe lama-Arabhu, kamva, kulo lonke elaseYurophu. Ezi nkqubo ziye zafika kuthi ngama-Arabhu kwaye kufuneka sizibize nge-Indo-Arabic, kuba zazisekelwe kulwazi lwamaHindu. Le nkqubo i owokuqala owaqala ukusebenzisa u-zero njengomnye umzobo.

Incwadi yakhe yealgebra yintshayelelo ehlangeneyo yokubala. Kule ngqungquthela unokubona indlela imigaqo ethile esetyenziswa ngayo ukugqibezela ii-equations. Kwakhona kufuneka zicuthwe ukuze zibe lula kwaye zikwazi ukuzisombulula. Nangona imathematika intsonkothile, Iseyinzululwazi apho sihlala sizama ukufumana eyona ndlela ilula. Iifomula zidla ngokuncitshiswa kangangoko ukuze ziqinisekise umgangatho wedatha echaneke kakhulu kodwa ngaphandle kokwenza izibalo ezininzi kakhulu.

Kwincwadi yakhe yealgebra, ukwancedise ekucwangciseni zonke izisombululo zequadratic equations. Ezi zibalo nazo zivela kwijometri, kwizibalo zorhwebo kunye nelifa, ngoko zaziluncedo kakhulu kwixesha. Eyona ncwadi indala ka-Al-Khwarizmi yayisaziwa ngegama elithi Kitab al-jabr wa'l-muqabala. kwaye yiyo enika imvelaphi nentsingiselo yegama elithi algebra.

La magama athiywa ukuze kuqondwe amagama asetyenziswe kwi-coefficients engalunganga kunye ne-positive yazo zonke izibalo ezaziwayo. Ukuguqulelwa kwiSpanishi, isihloko somsebenzi sinokuthiwa "Incwadi yokubuyisela kunye nokulinganisa" okanye "Ubugcisa bokusombulula ii-equations."

Unyango ngeenkwenkwezi kwaye usebenze kwijografi

Imephu yeHlabathi ngu-Al-Khwarizmi

Kwelinye icala, uAl-Khwarizmi naye wabhala incwadi ngeAstronomy. Kuphela ziinguqulelo zesiLatini ezimbini ezigciniweyo. Kulo mnqophiso ubunokubona izifundo zeekhalenda kunye neendawo zokwenyani zeLanga, inyanga kunye neeplanethi. Iitheyibhile zeesines kunye neetanjent zazisetyenziswa kwi-astronomy engqukuva. Sinokufumana kwakhona kolu luhlu lweetafile zeenkwenkwezi, izibalo zeparallax kunye nokusithwa kwelanga yinyanga kunye nokubonakala kwenyanga.

Uye wazinikela ngokuyinxenye kwijografi, apho wavelisa umsebenzi obizwa ngokuba yiKitab Surat-al-Ard. Kulo msebenzi unokubona indlela alungisa ngayo uPtolemy kuyo yonke into ephathelele iAfrika neMpuma. Wenza uluhlu olunezibanzi kunye nobude bezixeko, iintaba, imilambo, iziqithi, imimandla eyahlukeneyo yejografi kunye neelwandle. Ezi datha zisetyenziswe njenge isiseko sokwenza imaphu yehlabathi eyayisaziwa ngoko.

Njengoko ubona, uAl-Khwarizmi wenze igalelo elibalulekileyo kwihlabathi lezenzululwazi kwaye, namhlanje, zininzi izicelo esinazo kwimathematika enkosi kuye.


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  1.   José sitsho

    Kutheni besithi ngual-khwarizmi, okanye al-juarismi, okanye al-jwârizmi? Ivelisa ukudideka. Kubonakala ngathi ngabantu abathathu abohlukeneyo.