Zakha njani iinkwenkwezi

zenza njani iinkwenkwezi kwindalo iphela

Kuyo yonke indalo sibona zonke iinkwenkwezi ezenza ummandla ophakamileyo wesibhakabhaka. Nangona kunjalo, ababaninzi abantu abazi kakuhle Zakha njani iinkwenkwezi. Kufuneka wazi ukuba ezi nkwenkwezi zinemvelaphi kunye nesiphelo. Uhlobo ngalunye lwenkwenkwezi lunokwakheka okwahlukileyo kwaye luneempawu ngokwalo kwakheka.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela indlela iinkwenkwezi ezenziwe ngayo, zeziphi iimpawu zazo kunye nokubaluleka kwazo kwindalo yonke.

Zithini iinkwenkwezi

Zakha njani iinkwenkwezi

Inkwenkwezi yinto yeenkwenkwezi eyenziwe ngegesi (ingakumbi i-hydrogen kunye ne-helium) kwaye ifumaneka kwi-astronomical object. ukulingana ngenxa yomxhuzulane othande ukuwucinezela kunye noxinzelelo lwerhasi oluyandisayo. Kule nkqubo, inkwenkwezi ivelisa amandla amaninzi kumbindi wayo, ehlala i-reactor ye-fusion enokwenza i-helium kunye nezinye izinto ezivela kwi-hydrogen.

Kolu tshintsho ludityanisiweyo, ubunzima abugcinwanga ngokupheleleyo, kodwa iqhezu elincinci liguqulwa libe ngamandla. Ekubeni ubunzima benkwenkwezi bukhulu, nokuba buncinci, ngoko ke ubungakanani bamandla obukhuphayo ngomzuzwana ngamnye.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ukwakheka kweenkwenkwezi

Iimpawu eziphambili zeenkwenkwezi zezi:

  • Masa: Iguquguquka kakhulu, ukusuka kwiqhezu lobunzima beLanga ukuya kwiinkwenkwezi ezinkulu ezinobunzima obuphindwe kaninzi kunobunzima beLanga.
  • temperatura: ikwayinto eguquguqukayo. Kwiphotosphere, indawo ekhanyayo yenkwenkwezi, iqondo lobushushu likuluhlu lwe-50.000-3.000 K. Kwaye embindini wayo, ubushushu bufikelela kwizigidi zeKelvin.
  • umbala: ezinxulumene ngokusondeleyo nobushushu kunye nomgangatho. Inkwenkwezi eshushu ngakumbi, umbala wayo uluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, kwaye ngokuchaseneyo, xa ipholile, ibomvu ngakumbi.
  • Ukukhanya: kuxhomekeke kumandla emitha ye-stellar, ngokuqhelekileyo ayifani. Ezona nkwenkwezi zishushu nezinkulu zezona ziqaqambileyo.
  • Ubungakanani: ukukhanya kwayo okubonakalayo njengoko kubonwa eMhlabeni.
  • Uhambo: Iinkwenkwezi zinentshukumo ehambelanayo ngokubhekiselele kwintsimi yazo, kunye nentshukumo yokujikeleza.
  • Ubudala: Inkwenkwezi inokuba bubudala bendalo iphela (malunga ne-13 yeebhiliyoni zeminyaka) okanye iselula njengeminyaka eyibhiliyoni.

Zakha njani iinkwenkwezi

nebulae

Iinkwenkwezi zibunjwa kukudilika komxhuzulane wamafu amakhulu erhasi nothuli lwecosmic, obunzima bawo buhlala buguquguquka. Izinto eziphambili kula mafu ziyi-molecule ye-hydrogen kunye ne-helium, kunye nexabiso elincinci lazo zonke izinto ezaziwa emhlabeni.

Ukushukuma kwamasuntswana abumba ubunzima bobunzima obusasazeke esithubeni akwenzeki. Kodwa ngamanye amaxesha ukuxinana kwandisa kancinci kwinqanaba elithile, kudala uxinzelelo.

Uxinzelelo lwegesi luvame ukususa olu xinzelelo, kodwa ukutsalwa kwe-gravitational edibanisa iimolekyuli zomelele ngenxa yokuba amasuntswana asondelene kunye, aphikisana nomphumo. Kwakhona, ubunzima buya kwandisa ngakumbi ubunzima. Xa oku kusenzeka, ubushushu buyanda ngokuthe ngcembe.

Ngoku khawufane ucinge ngale nkqubo inkulu yocondensation kunye nalo lonke ixesha elikhoyo. Umxhuzulane u-radial, ngoko ke ilifu le-matter elinesiphumo liya kuba ne-spherical symmetry. Ibizwa ngokuba yiprotostar. Kwakhona, eli lifu lomcimbi alimile, kodwa lijikeleza ngokukhawuleza njengoko umcimbi ubhangisa.

Ngokuhamba kwexesha, undoqo uya kubumba kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu kakhulu kunye noxinzelelo olukhulu, oluya kuba sisixhobo sokudibanisa yenkwenkwezi. Oku kufuna ubunzima obunzima, kodwa xa kwenzekile, inkwenkwezi ifikelela kumlinganiselo kwaye iqala, ngokungathi kunjalo, ubomi bayo babantu abadala.

Ubunzima beStellar kunye nokuziphendukela kwemvelo okulandelayo

Iindidi zokuphendula ezinokuthi zenzeke kumbindi ziya kuxhomekeka kubunzima bayo bokuqala kunye nokuvela okulandelayo kwenkwenkwezi. Kubunzima obungaphantsi kwe-0,08 ngokuphindwe kabini ubunzima belanga (malunga ne-2 x 10 30 kg), akukho nkwenkwezi iya kubumba kuba undoqo awusayi kuvutha. Into eyenziweyo iya kuphola ngokuthe ngcembe kwaye ukujiya kuphele, kuvelise ithontsi elimdaka.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukuba i-protostar inkulu kakhulu, ayiyi kukwazi ukufikelela kwi-equilibrium efunekayo ukuze ibe yinkwenkwezi, ngoko iya kuwa ngamandla.

Ingcamango yokuwohloka komxhuzulane ukuze kwenziwe iinkwenkwezi kuthiwa yabangelwa yisazi ngeenkwenkwezi saseBritani nesazi ngendalo iphela uJames Jeans (1877-1946), owavelisa ingcamango yemeko engaguqukiyo yendalo iphela. Namhlanje, le nkcazo-bungcali yokuba i-matter isoloko iyilwa iye yalahlwa ngokuthanda i-Big Bang ithiyori.

star ubomi umjikelo

Iinkwenkwezi zenziwa ngenxa yenkqubo yokudibanisa i-nebulae eyenziwe ngegesi kunye nothuli lwe-cosmic. Le nkqubo ithatha ixesha. Kuqikelelwa ukuba yenzeka phakathi kwe-10 kunye ne-15 yezigidi zeminyaka ngaphambi kokuba inkwenkwezi ifikelele kuzinzo lokugqibela. Emva kokuba uxinzelelo lwegesi eyandayo kunye namandla acinezelayo okulinganisa umxhuzulane ngaphandle, inkwenkwezi ingena kwinto eyaziwa ngokuba lulandelelwano oluphambili.

Ngokuxhomekeke kubunzima bayo, inkwenkwezi ihlala kwenye yemigca ye-Hertzplan-Russell diagram, okanye i-HR diagram emfutshane. Nanku umzobo obonisa imigca eyahlukahlukeneyo ye-stellar evolution, yonke leyo igqitywe bubunzima benkwenkwezi.

Umgca wokuzivelela kweStellar

Olona luhlu luphambili yi ariya emise okwediagonally ehamba embindini wetshathi. Apho, ngaxa lithile, iinkwenkwezi ezisandul’ ukuvela zingena ngokobunzima bazo. Ezona nkwenkwezi zishushu, ziqaqambe kakhulu, ziphezulu ngasekhohlo, ngelixa ezona zipholileyo nezincinci zisezantsi ekunene.

I-Mass yiparameter elawula ukuvela kweenkwenkwezi, njengoko bekutshiwo amaxesha amaninzi. Inyaniso, iinkwenkwezi ezinkulu kakhulu ziphelelwa amafutha ngokukhawuleza, ngelixa iinkwenkwezi ezincinci, ezipholileyo, njengama-dwarfs abomvu, yiphathe ngononophelo ngakumbi.

Ebantwini, ii<em>red dwarfs ziphantse zibe ngunaphakade, kwaye akukho zilwanyana zibomvu zaziwayo zifileyo. Ecaleni kweenkwenkwezi ezilandelelanayo kukho iinkwenkwezi eziye zafudukela kweminye iminyele ngenxa yendaleko yazo. Ngale ndlela, iinkwenkwezi ezinkulu kunye nezikhulu ziphezulu kunye ne-white dwarfs ezantsi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela iinkwenkwezi ezenziwe ngayo, zeziphi iimpawu zazo kunye nokunye okuninzi.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.