Imeteorite eyatshayela iidinosaur iwe phi?

apho kwawa khona imeteorite eyatshabalalisa iidinosaur

Ukuphela kweedayinaso kwenzeka malunga ne-66 yezigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo xa i-asteroid eyaziwa njenge "Chicxulub" yangqubana noMhlaba, nto leyo eyabangela ukupheliswa kweentlobo ezininzi zezinto eziphilayo. Nangona kunjalo, indawo echanekileyo yempembelelo kunye nekamva leentsalela zale nto inkulu yasezulwini ihlala iyimfihlakalo. Abantu abaninzi bayazibuza apho kwawa khona imeteorite eyatshabalalisa iidinosaur.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela apho i-meteorite eyaphelayo iidinosaur zawa kunye neempawu zayo.

Chicxulub asteroid

imeteorite enkulu

Ngokutsho kweYunivesithi yaseChile, impembelelo ye-asteroid yabangela isiganeko esiyingozi sokutshatyalaliswa kobuninzi emhlabeni, kunye amandla alingana nama-50.000 aphindwe kangangama-XNUMX ayo yonke indawo ekhoyo yezixhobo zenyukliya.

Ubukhulu bempembelelo bebuphawuleka ngokwenene, ngoqikelelo olubeka i-diameter yayo phakathi kwe-12 kunye ne-15 yeekhilomitha, kunye nolunye uphando lude luqikelele ukuba inokuba ifikelele kwiikhilomitha ezimangalisayo ezingama-80. Isantya engqubane ngaso noMhlaba sasimangalisa ngokufanayo. ukuhamba ngesantya esingama-20 eekhilomitha ngomzuzwana, esilingana nesothusayo esisiphinda kangangama-59 isantya sesandi.

Ukufika kwesi siganeko siyintlekele kubangele ukuba zitshabalale malunga ne-75% yezidalwa zamandulo, zingashiyi nto ngaphandle kweefosili zazo ezingcwatywe phantsi kobutyobo. Yayinjalo ke ubukhulu bale mpembelelo kangangokuba yawuguqula ngonaphakade umkhondo wobomi kwisijikelezi-langa sethu.

Imeteorite eyatshayela iidinosaur iwe phi?

idayinaso kunye neemeteorite

Xa befunda le nto, abaphandi bagqibe kwelokuba indawo yempembelelo ikwidolophu yaseChicxulub, ekwiPeninsula yaseYucatan eMexico, ke ngoko igama layo. Ngokutsho kweNational Geographic, igama elithi "Chicxulub" livela kulwimi lwaseMayan kwaye, ngokumangalisayo, Inokuguqulelwa ngokuthi "umsila kaMtyholi", "i-devil's flea" okanye "indawo yophondo oluvuthayo."

Ngokweethiyori zenzululwazi, kukholelwa ukuba le dolophu, ehlala abantu abathobekileyo abangaphezulu nje kwe-4.000 yabantu, yayiyeyona ndawo iphambili yempembelelo ye-asteroid. Uqikelelo lwe-NASA lubonisa ukuba impembelelo ibangele icrater eyayilinganisa malunga ne-180 yeekhilomitha ububanzi kwaye yafikelela kubunzulu obumalunga nama-900 eemitha.

Kwizigidi zeminyaka, ubukhulu besi siganeko buye buyehla, nto leyo eyenza ukuba ingabonakali namhlanje. Kwada kwaba ngowe-1980 apho ingcamango eyayicetywa zizazinzulu uLuis Álvarez noWalter Álvarez yavela khona.

Kamva, ezinye iingcali zaqinisekisa yaye ekugqibeleni zavuma ukuba le yayiyeyona ndawo ichanileyo yesiganeko esibalulekileyo. Nangona kusenokungabikho icrater ebonakalayo, kukho imikhondo ebonakalayo eMhlabeni esebenza njengobungqina benkangeleko yayo.

UGqr. Gary Kinsland, unjingalwazi wenzululwazi yokwakheka komhlaba kwiYunivesithi yaseLouisiana, ufunda iChicxulub ukususela ngo-1994. Xa ethetha ngesi sihloko nabantwana abakwiminyaka yesikolo, usebenzisa isifaniso esilula: Khawube nomfanekiso-ngqondweni wakho ubeka isitya phezu kwebhedi yakho. yigqume ngamashiti neengubo. Isitya siya kubonakala kuphela njengento encinci yokungena.

Nangona i-cavity enkulu ingasayi kubakho, ukuba uhlolisisa i-indentation ebhedini yakho, uya kuqaphela ukuba isangqamana nomda wesitya phantsi kwayo. "Olu qwalaselo luvumela ukuba sifumane ulwazi malunga nesakhiwo esisisiseko," kuchaza umphandi. Ngelishwa, Akukho zintsalela zemeteorite zifunyenweyo.

Ukongeza, i-NASA ibambe izinto ezifihlakeleyo ezongezelelweyo ukusuka kwisithuba esityhile indawo yempembelelo: isakhiwo se-semicircular esachazwa ngokuba "phantse sigqibelele." Olu qwalaselo lwenziwa liqela labaphandi abangoovulindlela ababephakathi kwabokuqala ukucebisa iChicxulub njengendawo yempembelelo.

Ngethuba lokuphonononga, izazinzulu zamangaliswa yidatha yamagnetic kunye ne-gravitational ukuba inkampani yeoli yaseMexico yayiqokelele ngaphambili ekufuneni ioli. Olu lwazi luveze ulwakhiwo olunabileyo, olupheleleyo lwesangqa, abaluqaphele njengempembelelo yecrater. U-Kevin Pope, isazi se-NASA esibandakanyekayo kwisifundo se-archeology ye-Mayan, sinike iinkcukacha ezingakumbi malunga noku kufunyanwa okuphawulekayo.

Isiphelo se-asteroid iintsalela ayaziwa

I-meteorite crater

Kuphela inxalenye encinane yento enkulu yasezulwini ekwazileyo ukuphila. Abaphandi babalaselisa ukuba iziqwenga ezininzi ziye zakhutshwa ngenkani kwisijikelezi-langa sethu, kodwa zimbalwa eziye zalondolozwa okanye ekunzima ukuzifumana.

Ngokwe-hypothesis yabo, inxalenye yempahla yatshiswa ngexesha lokungqubana, ngelixa iziqwenga eziseleyo. Bangcwatywa ngokuthe ngcembe amakhulu eemitha ngaphantsi komphezulu kwizigidi zeminyaka..

Nangona kunjalo, iintsalela ze-asteroid zisenokufumaneka eYucatán, nangona zincinci. Uphononongo lwakutsha nje olupapashwe kwijenali edumileyo yeSayensi ngo-2021 luveze ukuba abaphandi bafumanisa umkhondo wothuli lwe-asteroid ngaphakathi kwendawo yempembelelo. Le nyaniso ingabalelwa kubukho be-iridium, into eyintsimbi edla ngokufumaneka kwi asteroids, ekhoyo kwi crater.

Ngokutsho kwenqaku, idatha ephantsi koqwalaselo iye yafumanisa i-iridium ephawulekayo phakathi kolandelelwano oluphezulu lwendandatho yesakhiwo sempembelelo yeChicxulub, leyo Ifunyenwe kwi-drill core efunyenwe ngexesha le-IODP-ICDP Expedition 364.

IYunivesithi yaseAustin yakhokela uhambo lolwandle ngexesha apho baye bagrumba amatye kumbindi wecrater yaseYucatan. Oku kufunyaniswayo kwakubandakanya ukuchongwa kwee-iridium spikes ezibonelele ngobungqina obubambekayo obuxhasa ithiyori yeChicxulub asteroid.

Iziphumo ezongezelelweyo

Iziphumo ezongezelelweyo ziye zavela kwiminyaka edlulileyo ekukholelwa ukuba zinokuvela kwimpembelelo yeChicxulub. Kutshanje, ngo-2022, iThe New York Times yapapasha inqaku elalibhengeza ukuvunjululwa kweentsalela zefosili kwidiphozithi ekuMntla Dakota, eUnited States. Ezi ziphumo ziphakamisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuba ezi ziqwenga zingadibaniswa ne-asteroid ejongene nesiganeko seChicxulub.

Ngexesha lentetho kunye neNASA, uRobert DePalma, ingcali ye-paleontologist ekhokela uphando, wakhankanya ukuba iintsalela ezifunyenweyo zinokunika ulwazi olubalulekileyo malunga nohlobo lwale nto. Nangona kukholelwa ukuba yi-asteroid, kukho ithuba lokuba inokuba yi-comet.

Ngelo xesha, wabonisa ukuzithemba kwinkqubo eqhubekayo yokuchonga into engaqondakaliyo, esithi: "Emva kokuba sikwazi ukuchonga ubunjani bayo, ngokungathandabuzekiyo siya kumangaliswa kukufumanisa kwethu." Ithiyori kaDePalma ibuyela emva kwiintsalela zamatye atyhidiweyo akhutshiwe ngamandla ngexesha lempembelelo., zitshintsha zibe ziingqukuva zeglasi njengoko ziziphola ngokuthe ngcembe. Ezi spherules, ngokutsho kwengcali, "zihlala ngaphakathi kwe-resin yomthi, eyayisebenza njengemvulophu ye-amber ekhuselayo, igcina imeko yabo yangaphambili." Oko kwafunyaniswa nguDePalma yayingamatye angaguqukiyo avaleleke ngaphakathi kolu yilo lweglasi.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nalapho i-meteorite eyaphelayo iidinosaurs zawa kunye neempawu zayo.


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