Umsele weSuez

ubude bejelo

Umntu ubengumlingisi ophambili kwizinto ezininzi zokwakha. Ukudalwa komjelo onokudibanisa uLwandle Olubomvu noLwandle lweMeditera yayiyimpembelelo yempucuko yamandulo eyayinabantu abahlala eIsthmus yaseSuez. Kubekho iinzame ezininzi de isiphelo sakhiwa Umsele weSuez. Indlela ibaluleke kakhulu ngokwembono yezoqoqosho kwaye inembali enkulu nenomdla emva kwayo esiza kuyithetha apha.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyifumana malunga neSuez Canal, ukwakhiwa kwayo kunye nembali.

Uyilo lomsele weSuez

ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho kumjelo

Asibuyeli umva de kwazanywa okokuqala ukwakha lo mjelo ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX BC. Ngelo xesha, uFaro Sesostris III wayalela ukwakhiwa komjelo wayenokudibanisa uMlambo umNayile noLwandle Olubomvu. Nangona yayinendawo encinci, yayingaphezulu nje ngokwaneleyo ukulungiselela zonke izikhephe zelo xesha. Le ndlela yayisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kude kube phakathi kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX BC.Intlango yayinkulu ngokwaneleyo ukuba yafumana indawo enkulu yomhlaba ukuya elwandle, ivimba ukuphuma kuyo.

Ngesi sizathu uFaro Neko wazama ukuvula lo msele ngaphandle kwempumelelo. Ngaphezulu kwamadoda ayi-100.000 aswelekileyo kwilinge lokuvula lo msele kwakhona. Kusemva kwenkulungwane apho ukumkani wasePersi, uDariyo, yaqalisa ukusebenza ukuze ibenakho ukubuyisa inxalenye esemazantsi yomsele. Injongo yayikukuzisa umjelo apho zonke iinqanawa zazinokudlula ngqo kwiMeditera ngaphandle kokuwela uMlambo iNayile. Imisebenzi yaphela kwiminyaka engama-200 kamva phantsi kwegunya likaPtolemy II. Uyilo lwalufana ngokufanayo neCanal yangoku yeSuez.

Kwakukho umahluko weemitha ezilithoba phakathi kwenqanaba lamanzi oLwandle Olubomvu kunye nolwandle lweMeditera, ke oku kuye kwafuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo kubalo lokwakhiwa komsele. Ngexesha lamaRoma lokuthimba i-Egypt, kwabakho inkqubela ebonakalayo eyonyusa urhwebo. Nangona kunjalo, emva kokuhamba kwamaRoma lo mjelo yalahlwa kwakhona kwaye yayingasetyenziselwa nantoni na. Ngexesha lolawulo lwamaSilamsi, uCaliph Omar wayephethe ukubuyela kwimeko yesiqhelo. Emva kwenkulungwane yonke isebenza kwakhona yaphinda yafunyanwa yintlango.

Kufuneka siyiqonde into yokuba intlango inamandla aqhubekekayo ngokuhamba kwexesha kwaye isanti ingonakalisa yonke into esemendweni wayo.

Imbali yeCanal Canal

Ukubaluleka komsele we-suez

Ubukho beSuez Canal buhlala bufihlakele ukusukela ngoko iminyaka eliwaka. Kude kwafika uNapoleon Bonaparte owafika eYiphutha ngo-1798. Phakathi kweqela labaphengululi ababehamba noNapoleon kukho iinjineli ezithile ezaziwayo kwaye wayenemiyalelo ethe ngqo yokuhlola esi siqithi ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba kuvulwa umjelo onokuvumela indlela leyo yemikhosi kunye nempahla eMpuma. Eyona njongo iphambili yalo msele kwaye kwaye yayiziindlela zorhwebo.

Ngaphandle kokufumanisa umkhondo woofaro bakudala bekhangela indlela yokuvula umjelo, injineli yemiqathango yokwakhiwa kwayo yayingenakwenzeka kwaphela. Njengoko bekukho iimitha ezilithoba zomahluko phakathi kweelwandle zombini, ayikuvumeli ukwakhiwa kwayo. Iminyaka idlulile, ikhilomitha eyandileyo yimfuno yokuvula le ndlela yaselwandle.

Sele iphakathi kuguquko kwimizi-mveliso, urhwebo lwaseMpuma Asiya lwaluyekile ukuba bubunewunewu kwaye lwalubalulekile kuhlumo lwezoqoqosho kuwo onke amagunya amakhulu aseYurophu. Ngomnyaka we-1845, enye enye indlela yongezwa, eyayiyiyokuqala Umgaqo kaloliwe wase-Egypt odibanisa iAlexandria nezibuko laseSuez. Kwakukho indlela ehamba ngaphesheya kwentlango yaseSinayi kodwa yayingenakwenzeka ngenxa yobuninzi beempahla ezazinokuhamba neekharavani. Urhwebo kwezi ndawo belungekho konke konke.

Umgaqo wokuqala wesayensi kaloliwe wawuluncedo ekuthuthweni kwabahambi kodwa ungonelanga ekuthuthweni kwempahla. Ayinakukwazi ukukhuphisana neenqanawa ezintsha ezazikho ngelo xesha, ezazikhawuleza kakhulu kwaye zinomthwalo omkhulu wokulayisha.

Ukwakhiwa kwakhe

Okokugqibela, imisebenzi yokwakhiwa kwalo msele yaqala ngo-1859 ngonozakuzaku wase-France nosomashishini uFerdinand de Lesseps. Emva kweminyaka eli-10 yokwakhiwa kwayo, yamiselwa kwaye yaba yenye yezona zinto zinkulu zenziwayo kwezobunjineli emhlabeni. Amawakawaka abasebenzi abafana nabalimi base Yiphutha basebenze ngenkani kwaye bamalunga nama-20.000 XNUMX abo babhubha ngenxa yeemeko ezinzima ekwakusakhiwa kuzo. Kokokuqala kuyo yonke imbali ukuba kusetyenziswa oomatshini bokumba abenzelwe ngokukodwa le misebenzi.

IFransi kunye ne-United Kingdom balilawula eli jelo kangangeminyaka ethile kodwa uMongameli wase-Egypt walibeka kwilizwe lakhe ngo-1956. Oku ke kwadala ingxwabangxwaba yezizwe ngezizwe eyaziwa ngokuba yi-Sinai War. Kule mfazwe, u-Israyeli, i-France kunye ne-United Kingdom bahlasela ilizwe. Emva kwexesha, phakathi kuka-1967 no-1973 kwabakho iimfazwe zama-Arabhu nama-Israeli, ezinjengeMfazwe yaseYom Kippur (ngo-1973).

Ukulungiswa kokugqibela kweSuez Canal kwakungo-2015 ngemisebenzi ethile yolwandiso ebangele iimpikiswano ezininzi ukusukela oko ifikelele kubungakanani kunye nobude obupheleleyo ekukhoyo ngoku.

Ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho

Inqanawa ibambeke kumsele we-suez

Kule mihla kuye kwaba yinto edume ngakumbi yokutshintsha ngenxa ye Ukuncothula inqanawe eyakha yanikwa, eneenqanawa ezingaphezu kwama-300 kunye neephenyane ezili-14 ezirhuqwayo ezisebenza emsileni Kunzima ukubuyisa ukugcwala kolwandle kuloo ndawo.

Ukubaluleka kwezoqoqosho ngokusisiseko kuhlala kwinto yokuba malunga neenqanawa ezingama-20.000 XNUMX ezidlula kulo mjelo ngesandla kwaye ngumjelo ohamba ngendlela ngokupheleleyo osetyenziswa e-Egypt. Ndiyabulela koku, wonke ummandla ube yinto ephucukileyo ngenxa yotshintshiselwano lwentengiso. Ivumela urhwebo lwaselwandle phakathi kweYurophu noMazantsi eAsia kwaye inendawo efanelekileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga neSuez Canal, ukwakhiwa kwayo kunye nembali yayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
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