KuMlambo i-Amazon

Iimpawu

Omnye wemilambo eyaziwa kwihlabathi ngokuba yeyona inamandla kwaye owona mlambo mkhulu eMzantsi Melika yi Umlambo iAmazon. Isizathu sokuba ibe ngowona mlambo mkhulu ehlabathini kungenxa yokuba ithwala amanzi amaninzi kunenayile yomNayile, iYangtze kunye ne Nguyen kunye. Ukuba ngumlambo omkhulu kangako kwaye unendawo enkulu enamanzi amakhulu, wondla wonke ummandla kunye namawaka eentlobo zezinto eziphilayo, uninzi lwazo olungekabekwa.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu, ijiology kunye nokwenziwa koMlambo iAmazon.

Iimpawu eziphambili

KuMlambo i-Amazon

Ngu mlambo okwi Mzantsi Melika kwaye awona manzi aphambili kuwo ahlaziyekile. Ihamba ivela kwiAndes ePeru, apho amanzi anyibilikayo onyibilikisa lo mlambo ukuphakama phantse kwe-6.000 yeemitha. Lo mlambo ugijimela kulo mmandla wonke uye eBrazil, kulapho sele uthulula khona Ulwandlekazi lweAtlantic. Kunokuthiwa isitya se-hydrographic salo mlambo sikhulu kunayo nayiphi na enye imilambo. Inobungakanani bezigidi ezisixhenxe zeekhilomitha. Oko kukuthi, isitya sehydrographic soMlambo iAmazon igubungela i-40% yommandla wonke woMzantsi Merika.

Kuhambo lonke ludlula kwiindawo zaseBrazil, eBolivia, eColombia, e-Ecuador, eGuyana, eVenezuela, ePeru naseSuriname. Onke la mazwe asebenzisa amanzi oMlambo iAmazon ngandlela thile. Kukubaluleka kwalo mlambo ukuba, ujikeleze lonke ihlathi liyanda yaziwa kwihlabathi liphela njengomphunga weplanethi.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba umndilili wamanzi okhutshelwa kwiAtlantic umalunga ne-209.000 yeekyubhiki mitha ngomzuzwana wamanzi, elingana neekhilomitha ezingama-6591 zekyubikhi ngonyaka. Eli nani lamanzi liyanceda kwaye lincedile abemi bomthonyama kuyo yonke imbali ukuseka abantu abajikeleze imilambo. Njengoko kusaziwa, kumaxesha amandulo ikhosi ezinzileyo yamanzi yayifuneka ukulungiselela kunye nokuseka bonke abantu abayijikelezileyo. Ukuba amanzi ebengenakuba nophuhliso loluntu.

Ubunzulu bomlambo buyahluka kwezinye iindawo. Amacandelo asezantsi arekhodwe kubunzulu beemitha ezingama-20, ngelixa ezona ndawo zinzulu zifikelela kwiimitha ezingama-90-100. Ububanzi buya kunika nendlela yayo. Kukho iindawo, ngakumbi ekuqaleni, ezinobubanzi obumalunga neekhilomitha eziyi-1.6. Nangona kunjalo, ubuninzi bobude oburekhodiweyo ziikhilomitha ezili-10. Kufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba ngexesha lemvula ukuhamba komlambo kukhula ngokubonakalayo kwaye kwenza ububanzi obunokufikelela kubo bufike kwiikhilomitha ezingama-50.

Ukuze ukwazi ukugcina isixa samanzi esininzi, kufuneka ube neerhafu ezininzi. Kwaye uMlambo iAmazon unemirhumo eyi-1100 ehamba ngaphezulu kweekhilomitha ezingama-6.400 ubude. Eminye yemithombo ephambili yemilambo ebonelela ngamanzi kakhulu yiNapo, iPastaza, iCaquetá, iChambira, iTapajós, iNanay kunye neHuallaga. Owona mthombo mde weAmazon nguMlambo iMadeira.

Nangona ungowona mlambo mkhulu emhlabeni, uyaqhubeka nokulwela indawo yokuqala noMlambo umNayile kumcimbi wobude. Imvelaphi yalo mlambo ayikacaci ncam, yiyo loo nto kusathengwa ukuba uMlambo umNayile ngowona mde emhlabeni.

Ukuyilwa koMlambo iAmazon

Iintyatyambo zeAmazon

Inkqubo yonke ephuphumayo yalo mlambo yenziwe ngulo mlambo kunye nayo yonke imithombo yawo. Imirhumo ibhekisa kwimirhumo ebonelela ngokuhamba kwamanzi ukuya emlanjeni omkhulu. Lo mlambo awuhambi kumgca othe ngqo kodwa kunokoe yenza inani eliqobayo ukusuka kwiiAndes zasePeru ukuya emantla emva koko ukuya empuma. Ukuthambeka kwala manani emilinganiselo kwaziwa ngokuba yimandanders. Ezi meanders zityebile kwizinto eziphilayo kuba zininzi izidalwa eziza kubetha kwaye zinike ulwakhiwo kuncedo olutsha.

Ezi meanders zonakalisa wonke umhlaba ojikelezileyo ekuhambeni kwexesha. Ngendlela eya kuthi, ekuqhubeni kweminyaka kunye neminyaka yokhukuliseko lomhlaba iphele kwaye iguqule umhlaba wonke kwaye, ke, ikwachaphazela nendawo eziphilayo. Kwaye kunjalo, kuxhomekeke kwimvula yonyaka kunye nolawulo lwemvula kunye nokuqina Siyabona ukuba amandla otshintsho oMlambo iAmazon abaluleke kakhulu.

Inkqubo idityaniswa Umlambo iOrinoco kwaye iqhubeka iqukuqela de ibe yila i-delta efikelela kuma-320 eekhilomitha ububanzi. Kunokuthiwa ayinayo inyani uqobo lwayo, kodwa kukuba yimisinga yoLwandlekazi lweAtlantic kunye namandla omoya ayithintelayo ukuba ingafakwa kwiintsika. Enye yezinto eziphambili kulo mlambo kukuba, ekuhambeni kwawo, unamanzi kunye neengxangxasi ezenza kube nzima ukuhamba. Kungenxa yenyani yokuba ukudityaniswa kwemijelo emitsha yokuhambisa imithambo ibangela iindawo zemijelo emi nkqo.

Zininzi izifundo ezimalunga nokwakheka komhlaba ezibonisa ukuba uMlambo iAmazon wavela ngexesha laseMiocene. Oku kwenzeka malunga neminyaka eli-12 yezigidi eyadlulayo. Yazalwa ikakhulu njengomlambo ohamba kwilizwekazi ngexesha uMzantsi Melika wangoku kunye neAfrika babemanyene kwilizwekazi elinye elibizwa ngokuba yiGondwana. Kucingelwa ukuba ngenxa yokuthambeka, uMlambo iAmazon uqukuqela usuka empuma uye entshona hayi ngoku.

Ukuphakanyiswa komhlaba kunye nokubunjwa kweAndes kwenzeka ekupheleni kwe Cretaceous ixesha. Oku kwenzeke njengesiphumo sokudibana kwamacwecwe etektoni abizwa ngokuba yiNazca kunye nembasa yoMzantsi Merika. Oku kungqubana kwamacwecwe yabangela ukuba onke amanzi ajike abe lulwandle lwangaphakathi kwaye, kancinci kancinci, yayifumana iimpawu zomgxobhozo. Kulapho ke kwathi, kwiminyaka eli-11 lezigidi eyadlulayo, amanzi akwazi ukuhamba esiya kwimihlaba esezantsi ngenxa yokuvaleka okwakukho ngenxa yokuhamba kwamanzi okwabangelwa ziiAndes kwaye ekugqibeleni zangena elwandle.

Imilo yangoku yoMlambo iAmazon ifikelela kwiminyaka ezi-2.4 yezigidi eyadlulayo. Oku kuyenza ibe yenye yemilambo emincinci.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi ngoMlambo iAmazon.


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