Umkhenkce weHimalayan

ukunyamalala komkhenkce

IiHimalaya zezona zidumileyo kwihlabathi kuba zinencopho ye-Everest, le ncopho yeyona iphakamileyo emhlabeni. I Umkhenkce weHimalayan ethwaxwa ziziphumo ezimandundu zokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu ehlabathi ngenxa yokutshintsha kwemozulu. Ukunyibilika komkhenkce we-Himalaya kunokuba neziphumo ezibi ebantwini, kwiintyatyambo nakwizilwanyana.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuba uyazi malunga nemeko yangoku ye-Himalayan glaciers kunye nemiphumo yayo emibi.

Ukunyibilika komkhenkce weHimalayan

Umkhenkce weHimalayan

Ngokutsho kophononongo olupapashwe kwiphephancwadi iScience Advances, Ilahleko yomkhenkce evela kwi-Himalayan glaciers iye yakhawuleza ukusukela ngo-2000: Malunga nesiqingatha semitha yomkhenkce uyanyibilika nyaka ngamnye ngenxa yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu ukuya kutsho kwi-1°C. Iziphumo zininzi, ezifana nezikhukhula okanye ukunqongophala kwamanzi.

Uphando oluqulethwe kuphononongo lujonge utshintsho olwenzekileyo kwingingqi ye-Himalaya kule minyaka ingamashumi amane idlulileyo. Oku kwenzeka kwimifanekiso efunyenwe yi-American spy satellite KH-9 Hexagon, eyaziwa ngokuba yiBird Bird, eyayisetyenziswa ngexesha elibizwa ngokuba yi-Cold War kwaye yachithwa ngo-2011. Ukongeza kule mifanekiso, imifanekiso eyongezelelweyo efunyenwe yi-NASA e-Indiya iye. yongezwa. , iTshayina, iNepal kunye neBhutan.

Eminye imifanekiso ifanelekile kuba inika umfanekiso ocacileyo wokuba "ukukhawuleza kangakanani kwaye kutheni i-Himalayan glaciers iye yanyibilika ngeli xesha." UJoshua Maurer, umbhali okhokelayo wephepha kwiYunivesithi yaseColumbia eLamont-Doherty Observatory, wayichaza ngelo xesha.

Kuphononongo, ama-650 e-Himalayan glaciers ahlalutywa. Imele i-55% yawo wonke umkhenkce kulo mmandla kwaye igubungela indawo yeekhilomitha ezingama-2.000 ukusuka entshona ukuya empuma. Inkqubela ebonwayo, ngokomzekelo, kukuba ngowe-1975 ummandla weHimalaya yayiyi-87% egqunywe ngumkhenkce, egcinwe rhoqo ngo-2000, kwaye yawela kwi-72% kwi-2016. Ngamanye amazwi, ilahlekelwe yikota yobunzima bayo kwisithuba seminyaka engamashumi amane.

Phakathi ko-1975 no-2000, xa amaqondo obushushu anyuka ngenxa yokutshintsha kwemozulu, umkhenkce ulahlekelwe ngama-25 eesentimitha ngonyaka, kwaye yakhawuleza ngokuphawulekayo kuyo yonke iminyaka ye-1990, kwaye kwiminyaka elishumi elandelayo, ngokuqala kwewaka leminyaka elitsha, kwisixa esanyuka ngale ndlela, waqikelela ukuba i-50 cm ngonyaka sele ilahleka.

Iziphumo zokunyibilika komkhenkce we-Himalaya

Ukunyibilika komkhenkce weHimalaya

Ngaphaya koko, ukunyibilika kwekhephu kwii-Himalaya kubonwe ukuba kuchaphazela ubukhulu becala imiphakamo esezantsi. Ilahleko yomkhenkce ifikelela kwiimitha ezintlanu ngonyaka. Oku kubonisa ilahleko emalunga nezigidi ezisi-8 zeetoni zamanzi. Imiphumo iba mibi ekubeni inokuchaphazela abantu abamalunga nezigidi ezingama-800. Ukunqongophala kwamanzi kuthetha iingxaki zokunkcenkceshela, umbane ophehlwa ngamanzi, kunye nokufikelela kumanzi okusela acocekileyo kunye nogutyulo olusempilweni. Nangona ukunyibilika kuvelisa amanzi ajikeleza ngokukhululekileyo emhlabeni, oko kubizwa ngokuba kukubaleka, kuya kubangela ukunqaba kwamanzi kwixesha eliphakathi nelide.

Ngesizathu, kukho imiba emibini ubukhulu becala. Kwisandle esinye, ukunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu kubangele utshintsho kwimvula kulo mmandla, ngokuncipha kwezinye iindawo kunye nokwanda kwezinye. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-fuel fuels kunye ne-biomass itshiswa kwinqanaba elikhulu kwingingqi yase-Asia, i-ash yayo iphelela phezu kwekhephu, ifunxa amandla elanga kunye namandla kunye nokukhawuleza ukunyibilika.

Utshintsho lwemozulu

Ngelishwa, ukunyibilika komkhenkce we-Himalaya akukuphela kwesizathu sokuba utshintsho lwemozulu luchaphazele lo mmandla. Ukulinganisa kuyilwe kwaye kuqhutywe ngabaphandi kwiYunivesithi yasePotsdam kubonisa ukuba amawaka amachibi asengozini eyingozi yezikhukhula. Oku kwenzeka ngenxa Ikhephu nomkhenkce ziyaqhubeka nokunyibilika njengoko amaqondo obushushu ehlabathi eqhubeka enyuka.

Ukunyibilika kubangele ukuwa kwe-moraine, umqobo wentlenga kunye namatye abanjwe kunye ngumkhenkce. Oku kudala oko abaphandi bakubiza ngokuthi "umkhukula we-glacial rupture." Ngokuqhuba izigidi zeekhompyutha zokulinganisa kusetyenziswa iimephu ze-topographic kunye nedatha yophando lwesathelayithi, abaphandi bafumene malunga namachibi angama-5,000 ane-moraines engazinzanga enokuvelisa ezi zikhukula.

Uninzi lwamachibi anomkhenkce afumaneka kwiindawo ezinabemi abambalwa. Nangona kunjalo, uluntu oluhlala emazantsi omlambo lunokuchatshazelwa zezi zikhukula, ezinokuthi zichaphazele umhlaba wezolimo kwaye zisenokonakalisa izakhiwo.

Iimpawu ze-Himalayan

ncibilika

Ubude be-Himalaya bubonke bumalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-2.400, ukusuka empuma ukuya entshona, ukusuka kuMlambo i-Indus ukuya kumazwe aseMpuma Asia nakuMbindi weAsia, ukuya kuMlambo iYarlung Zangbo. Ububanzi bayo 161-241 km. Umntla-ntshona wayo ziiNtaba zeKarakoram kunye neeNtaba zeHindu Kush, emantla yiQinghai-Tibet Plateau, kwaye emazantsi yiThafa leGangetic yaseIndiya. Igubungela i-75% yommandla waseNepal. Ngokubanzi, iqulethe iintaba ezintathu ezihambelanayo: i-Greater Himalayas, iphakamileyo kunye nengasentla, i-Lesser Himalayas kunye ne-Himalaya yangaphandle. Olu luhlu lweentaba luneencopho ezili-14 ngaphezu kwe-8.000 yeemitha ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, kwaye kuqikelelwa ukuba ngaphezu kwe-100 kuzo zingaphezu kwama-7.200 eemitha ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle.

IMount Everest yeyona idumileyo, kodwa iincopho zayo ziquka iKanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna, K2, Kailash, kunye neManaslu. Kukho iintaba zomkhenkce ezimalunga ne-15.000 12.000 kulo lonke udederhu lweentaba, yaye umthamo wazo uziikyubhiki khilomitha ezili-XNUMX XNUMX zamanzi acocekileyo. Kwi-Great Himalayas, iintaba zinomlinganiselo wokuphakama oziimitha ezingama-20,000, okanye ngaphezulu nje kweemitha ezingama-6,000; kukho iEverest, iK2 kunye neKanchenjunga. Kwii-Lesser Himalayas kumazantsi eGreater Himalayas, iintaba ziphakama ukusuka kwi-3657 yeemitha ukuya kwi-4572 yeemitha, ngelixa i-Himalaya engaphandle inomphakamo ophakathi kweemitha ezingama-914 ukuya kwi-1219 yeemitha. Eminye imilambo ebalulekileyo kumbindi nakwintshona yeAsia iqukuqela kwiiHimalaya.

I-Indus, iGanges, iBrahmaputra, iYellow, iMekong, iNu, neBrahmaputra zezona zibalaseleyo. Iinkqubo ezintathu zamanzi eziphambili zaseAsia, i-Indus, iGanges-Brahmaputra, kunye neYangtze, ziphuma kolu luhlu lweentaba. Le milambo inceda ekulawuleni imozulu yoMhlaba (ingakumbi kumazwekazi asembindini nakwi-Indian subcontinent) kwaye isoloko ithwala intlenga eninzi. Kwakhona, kukho amakhulu amachibi kwi-Himalayas, kodwa uninzi lwamachibi angaphantsi kwama-5.000 eemitha ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nomkhenkce we-Himalayan kunye nemeko yawo yangoku.


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