Tierra del Fuego

ihlathi lelizwe lomlilo

Ubungangamsha kwaye buhluke ngakumbi, njengoko igama lisitsho, Tierra del Fuego, iphondo elincinane laseArgentina, ukuba alithathwa njengomhlaba ogqithiseleyo. Sisiphelo ngokoqobo sehlabathi, kungekuphela nje ngenxa yokuba kude kodwa nangenxa yokungabikho konxibelelwano nemekobume. Kwaye kukuba esi siqithi, nanamhlanje, asinakufikelelwa kuphela ngomoya. Ineempawu ezizodwa kunye neentlobo-ntlobo zezinto eziphilayo.

Ngoko ke, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukuze sikuxelele yonke into omele uyazi malunga neTierra del Fuego, zithini iimpawu zayo kunye nezinto ezinomdla.

Imvelaphi kunye nembali yeTierra del Fuego

kwiphondo laseTierra del Fuego

Iimpawu zomzimba zeTierra del Fuego ziyahlukahlukana. Uninzi lwenxalenye esemantla yesiqithi esikhulu yenziwe yimihlaba enomkhenkce, ingakumbi amachibi kunye ne-moraines. Ubude bungaphantsi kweemitha ezili-180. Unxweme lweAtlantiki kunye neStrait yeMagellan ziphantsi.

Ngokuchaseneyo, iindawo ezisemazantsi nasentshona zesiqithi esikhulu kunye ne-archipelago zikwandisiwe kweentaba zeAndes, ezinencopho ezingaphezulu kweemitha ezingama-7.000, ngakumbi iimpawu zomkhenkce ezisezintabeni zaseSarmiento, eDarwin naseTierra del Fuego.

Kukho ihlathi le-beech elivuthulukileyo embindini wesiqithi esikhulu kwaye ithafa elingasentla ligqunywe yingca. Ezi ziqithi zafunyanwa ngumqhubi wenqanawa uFernando de Magallanes ngo-1520 xa wayehamba ngesikhephe esinegama lakhe waza wayibiza ngokuba yingingqi yaseTierra del Fuego.

Abakhenkethi abaliqela bawela le ndawo, kodwa akuzange kube kude kwaze kwaba yilapho i-Admiralty yaseBritane yenze uphando olubanzi kulo lonke ichwebakazi. phakathi kwe-1826 kunye ne-1836 bazama ukuskena okucwangcisiweyo. Kangangeminyaka engama-350 emva kohambo lukaMagellan, lo mmandla ubusoloko uphantsi kohlalwa ngabantu bawo. AmaIndiya, ama-Ona, amaIndiya aseYahgan kunye namaIndiya aseAlacaluf.

"Ekupheleni kwehlabathi", kwingingqi ye-Tierra del Fuego ye-archipelago yase-Argentina, kukho imbali ecacileyo yokuhlaliswa kweYurophu. Beqhutywa kokoyisa igolide, ioli namadlelo aphambili anengca, abantu baseYurophu bahamba ngesikhephe ukuya kulo mmandla usemazantsi ngethemba lokuzuza imali.

Namhlanje, izixeko ezikumazantsi eArgentina zisekelwe kule mbali ityebileyo. Noko ke, ngaphambi kokuthontelana kwabantu basemzini, kwakukho amaqela awayengaziwa. AmaYaghan (okanye amaYamana), amaAlacalut, namaOna ayekhe abhadula kulo mmandla uyinkangala kwaye unyamezele iimeko zemozulu ezimaxongo. Izilwanyana zasendle kunye nobutyebi baselwandle ezixhomekeke kubo zafumana ukhuphiswano oluncinane.

sezulu

Umhlaba woMlilo

Imozulu yaseTierra del Fuego ipholile ehlotyeni kwaye kubanda ebusika, kunye nomahluko ocacileyo wemvula yonyaka ukusuka kwi-intshi ezingama-180 (4.600 mm) eBahía Félix kwisiqithi saseChile esiyintlango ukuya kwi-intshi ezingama-20 eRío Grande, eArgentina. Kwiindawo eziveziweyo ezisemazantsi nasentshona, izityalo zikhawulelwe kwi-mosses kunye nezihlahla.

Imozulu kule ndawo ayifanelekanga ukuhlala. Kukwimozulu yolwandle engaphantsi komhlaba (ukuhlelwa kwemozulu kweKöppen CFC), kunye nehlobo elifutshane nelipholileyo, ubusika obude kunye nobumanzi: umntla-mpuma ubonakala ngokuba nemimoya enamandla, ngoxa emazantsi nasentshona kunemvula encinane, kwaye amaxesha amaninzi kuba nomoya, kunenkungu, kwaye kufuma. Zimbalwa iintsuku ezingenamvula, isichotho, isichotho, okanye ikhephu.

Umgca wekhephu osisigxina uqala kwi-700 m ngaphezu kolwandle. Isiqithi sase-States sikwiikhilomitha ezingama-230 empuma ye-Ushuaia, kunye ne-1.400 mm yemvula. Intshona ifumana eyona mvula inamandla, 3.000 mm ngonyaka.

Ubushushu buhlala bufana unyaka wonke: e-Ushuaia, iqondo lobushushu ehlotyeni aligqithisi kwi-9 ° C, kwaye iqondo lobushushu ebusika ngu-0 ° C. Ikhephu lingenzeka ehlotyeni. Ihlobo elibandayo nelimanzi linceda ukukhusela imikhenkce yamandulo.

Isiqithi esisemazantsi sinemozulu eqhelekileyo ye-subantarctic tundra, ethintela imithi ekukhuleni. Inxalenye yommandla ophakathi kwelizwe inemozulu epholileyo. Imimandla yehlabathi enemozulu efanayo kumazantsi eTierra del Fuego ziiAleutian Islands, iIceland, iAlaska Peninsula, kunye neZiqithi zaseFaroe.

Imida kunye nabemi baseTierra del Fuego

penguin biodiversity

I-Tierra del Fuego, ehambelana ne-Antarctica kunye ne-Atlantiki yaseMzantsi, ingelinye lamaphondo angama-23 aseArgentina. Ngaxeshanye, Ngomnye wemimandla engama-24 ezimeleyo eyenza ilizweIkwayenye yeendawo zowiso-mthetho zelizwe ezingama-24, ngokubhekiselele kwikomkhulu layo i-Ushuaia kunye nesona sixeko sinabantu abaninzi, sisiqithi saseArgentina.

I-Patagonia, ekumazantsi kakhulu eArgentina, ihlala kwisiqithi esikhulu, ulwandle kunye nommandla we-Antarctic, osuka eTierra del Fuego ukuya e-Antarctica, kubandakanya iStaten Island, iFalkland Islands, iSouth Atlantic Islands kunye ne-Antarctic Peninsula. Unxantathu wenziwa, amacala e-meridian angama-74 ° W kunye ne-25 ° W apex kunye ne-South Pole.. EMelika, iphondo linemida yaseSanta Cruz emantla, iChile ngasentshona, iBeagle Channel emazantsi, kunye neChile emazantsi. I-Antarctica, iphondo likwanomda osentshona weChile, kodwa umda awukamiselwa.

Ngokubhekiselele kuluntu, uDarwin wasinda kwindawo enzima kwaye wathatha amanyathelo anzima, egxininisa isizwe esikhethekileyo kule nkcubeko kunye nomlingiswa wayo owaziwayo, ebanika isihloko esithi "inkosi enelishwa yalo mhlaba olusizi."

Ngokwejografi nangokwenkcubeko eyahlukileyo eYaghan, uOna yayingabantu ababehlala emhlabeni. Babenamaqela amabini aphambili: iHausch neSelk'nam. Kwakukho izahlulo ezibini kokugqibela, enye yayikwithafa eliyinkqantosi elingasentla koMlambo woMlilo, kwaye elinye lalikwipaki esemazantsi nakwindawo yehlathi.

Ngokungafaniyo nabantu abakummandla oselunxwemeni, aba bantu babebakhulu yaye basinda xa bezingela i-guanaco kunye ne-tuco-tuco (impuku esebenzisa isaphetha notolo njengesixhobo). Okwangoku, eArgentina, awusayi kubona nawuphi na umkhondo kula maqela emveli. Ukusinda kwikona engafanelekanga kakhulu yeplanethi, iYaghan, iAlacalut kunye ne-Ona bangqineka bengabantu abomeleleyo nabahlala ixesha elide. Noko ke, ezi mpawu azizange zibakhusele ekungeneni kwezifo nakwiinkcubeko zasemzini.

Ukufunyanwa kobutyebi bendalo ngamaSpeyin, yaye kamva nangabanye abemi baseYurophu, kwazisa utshintsho olukhawulezileyo kwezi nkcubeko zembali. Isifo saseYurophu satshayela inani elikhulu labantu bobabini, yaye abo basindayo bajamelana nengxaki yokukhukuliseka kwenkcubeko.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neTierra del Fuego kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1.   Sanchez ma sitsho

    Ekuphela kwento efanelekileyo malunga nePeninsula yeMiter yindawo ekuyo ngokwejografi. Wonke umgudu owenziweyo kulondolozo lwendalo sisingxengxezo sokuthintela abantu ukuba bangasondeli kuloo mmandla. Emazantsi e-miter peninsula kukho imihlaba engabonakali kwiimephu zangoku. Imfihlo karhulumente ekufuneka igcinwe kwaye ingezi ekukhanyeni. Ithiyetha enkulu eyenzelwe loo njongo.
    Nabani na osondela kuloo mmandla usemazantsi uyagxothwa. Sele kukho ubungqina obuninzi boku ngeenqanawa ezininzi ezitshoneyo. Ubukhulu.
    Emazantsi e-peninsula ye-miter kukho imihlaba efihliweyo kwaye ihlala ngabantu bamandulo. IiYagans.
    Ukuba uzimisele ukuya emzantsi baya kukunqanda. Iwaka lemithetho, imithetho kunye nobudenge buyilwe ukwenza ukuba kube njalo. I-miter peninsula ikufuphi kakhulu naloo mihlaba ifihliweyo engabonakali kwiimephu. Akukho mntu ungena kuloo mmandla yaye noomatiloshe abahambi ngokuloba.
    Umzantsi wesiqithi welizwe lilizwe.