Ulwandle loMntla

ukubunjwa kolwandle emantla

Olunye lolona lwandle lincinci laziwayo ngu Ulwandle loMntla. Ngumzimba wamanzi anetyuwa othathelwa ingqalelo njengolwandle olunomda kuLwandlekazi lweAtlantic. Ime kwintshona yelizwekazi laseYurophu phakathi kwe-United Kingdom, iJamani, iFrance, i-Belgium, i-Netherlands, i-Danish, i-Sweden ne-Norway, inemilo yoxande egubungela ummandla we-570,000 km2 kunye nomthamo we-54,000 -94,000 km3.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ngazo zonke iimpawu, ukubunjwa, izityalo nezisongelo zoLwandle lwaseMantla.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Lulwandle olusecaleni koLwandlekazi lweAtlantic olunobude obupheleleyo Kuqikelelwa malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-960 kwaye eyona ndawo ibanzi ziikhilomitha ezingama-580. Lulwandle oludibanisa lonke ulwandlekazi lweAtlantic ngePas de Calais kunye neChannel yesiNgesi, kunye neBaltic ngeSkagerrak Strait kunye neKattegat Strait elandelayo. Kolu lwandle kukho inani elikhulu leziqithi ezinjengeziqithi zeFrisian, iFarne, ezinye iziqithi ezincinci kunye neziqithi ezikufutshane nonxweme.

Imilambo eyondla olu lwandle ikakhulu yiRhine, iGloma, iElbe, iWeser, iDramen, iEtran, iThames, iTrent kunye neEms. Ukuba lulwandle oluncinci lobudala akukho nzulu. Kwindawo esemantla inzulu kancinci kodwa ifikelela kuphela kwezinye iindawo ngobunzulu beemitha ezingama-90. Ubunzulu obuqikelelweyo bubunzulu ziimitha ezingama-700 kwaye indawo esemantla ikummandla waseNorway. Ngamanzi okanye amaqondo obushushu asezantsi kakhulu ngamanye amaxesha abanda. Ngamanye amaxesha imigca yomkhenkce ibonwa idada ngaphezulu.

Eyona nto iqhelekileyo kukuba ebusika amanzi oLwandle oMantla omhlaba afikelela kwi-6 nge-avareji, ngelixa ehlotyeni iqondo lobushushu lenyuka laya kwi-17 degrees. Owona mlambo uphuma phezulu usawoti uvela kwiAtlantic kwaye awona manzi asezantsi kunye netyuwa ephantsi avela kwiBaltic. Njengoko kulindelekile, ezona ndawo zineetyuwa kolu lwandle zezi zikwindawo ezikufuphi nemilambo yemilambo.

Unxweme loLwandle lwaseMantla lwahlukile ngokuxhomekeke kwingingqi esikuyo. Ingakumbi kwinxalenye esemantla nakunxweme lwaseNorway, imilambo, amawa, iilwandle ezinamatye, iintlambo kunye namanxweme aneendunduma zesanti ziqhelekile. Zonke ezi zinto zendalo ziqhelekile kummandla wonxweme waseNorway. Nangona kunjalo, kwimimandla esempuma nasentshona ezinye zinoncedo oluqhelekileyo kunye neendawo ezinamathambeka umahluko.

Ukusekwa kolwandle lwasentla

Njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, lolunye lolona lwandle lincinci emhlabeni. Imalunga neminyaka engama-3.000 XNUMX kuphela ubudala kwindawo eselunxwemeni. Iqale ukukhula ukusuka ekwahlukaneni kwelizwekazi eliphambili iPangea okoko ukwahlulwa kwavula iziqwenga zomhlaba ezazondliwa ngemilambo yemilambo ekhankanywe apha ngasentla. Kwangoko Ixesha leCenozoic, i-supercontinent yahlukana kwaye iAtlantic yayisele yenziwe.

Kunokuthiwa olu lwandle lwenziwe ngeengxenye zezinye iinguqu ezenzekileyo kwinqanaba lejoloji. Ngexesha Triassic y IJurassic inani elikhulu lezindlu kunye neempazamo zenziwa ezashiya ummandla wonke apho namhlanje iindawo eziphezulu zenziwe ngokugcwele. Oku kwenza ukuba ezinye iindawo zibe namanzi amaninzi. Ngelixesha lokwakheka komhlaba wawunyukile kwaye iiBritish Isles zazingekakheki.

Emva kwexesha ngexesha le-Oligocene, iziko kunye nentshona yelizwekazi laseYurophu sele evele amanzi. Phantse onke amanzi ahlula iTethys Ocean avele. Malunga nezigidi ezi-2.6 zeminyaka eyadlulayo, ngexesha le Pliocene UmNtla woLwandle waseMantla wawusele usemazantsi e-Dogger Bank, yayiyinxalenye yeYurophu kwaye iRhine yagalelwa emanzini ayo anetyiwa. Ngenxa yeminyaka eyahlukeneyo yomkhenkce eyenzeka ngexesha, amaza eqhwa ayesenziwa kwaye ebuyela umva ngexesha lePleistocene.

Iminyaka engama-8.000 XNUMX kuphela eyadlulayo umkhenkce wanyamalala ngokupheleleyo kwaye inqanaba lolwandle laqala ukunyuka. Ngenxa yegalelo lamanzi emilanjeni kunye nokunyamalala komkhenkce, ulwandle lungaqala ukubumba ngokupheleleyo. Ukongeza, ukunyuka kwenqanaba lolwandle kubangele ukuba ibhulorho yomhlaba phakathi kweBritane neFrance izaliswe ngamanzi kwaye isiNgesi Channel kunye nobubi baseNyakatho buxhumene.

Iintlobo ngeentlobo zezinto eziphilayo zoLwandle lwaseMantla

Ulwandle loMntla

Njengoko bekulindelekile, olu lwandle lutyebile kwindalo eyahlukeneyo kwaye ayisiyondawo yokuhlala izilwanyana ezininzi, kodwa ikwayindawo yokutyelela izilwanyana ezifudukayo. Sifumana inani elikhulu lezilwanyana ezanyisayo ezinjengetywina eliqhelekileyo, uphawu lweempuphu, i-porpoise eqhelekileyo, itywina elirinjiweyo, umnenga ofanelekileyo kunye nezinye iintlobo zezilwanyana ezanyisayo. Ke yona intlanzi, sineentlobo ezahlukeneyo ezingaphezu kwama-230 Phakathi kwayo sifumana ikhowudi, i-flatfish, i-dogfish, ipout kunye neherring. Zonke ezi ntlanzi zininzi ziyathandwa sisixa esikhulu sezondlo ezibonelelwa yimilambo kunye nobukho beplankton.

Sikwafumana inani elikhulu lezinto eziphilayo ezifanelekileyo ezinikezela ngendawo yokuhlala efanelekileyo yokuhlala kunye nokuhlala kwezinye iintaka zaselwandle kunye nezifudukayo. La machweba alungele indawo yokuhlala iintlobo ezininzi. Phakathi kweentaka zolwandle ezisabela kula machweba sinazo iilon, iiyuks, iipuffins, ii-terns kunye nee-fulmars. Kumaxesha amandulo uLwandle lwaseMantla lwalusaziwa ngcono ngenxa yezinto eziphilayo ezahlukeneyo kunanamhlanje. Ukutyhubela iinkulungwane, izityalo nezilwanyana ezahlukileyo kule ndawo ziye zehla kakhulu.

Iinkqubo

Umntu ukho uninzi lwezisongelo zazo zonke iilwandle kunye neelwandle zehlabathi. Njengoko unokulindela, eli tyala alifani. Ngenxa yokufunyanwa kweoyile kunye noovimba begesi yendalo abakhoyo phantsi kwalo mgangatho wolwandle, uLwandle lwaseMantla luye lwangumbandela woxhatshazo olukhulu kurhwebo. Onke amazwe ajikeleze uLwandle lwaseMantla aye axhaphaza izibonelelo zeefosili kwaye kunxweme bazityebisa ngokufumana isanti kunye negrabile.

Ngenxa yale misebenzi yezoqoqosho, iyantlukwano yezinto eziphilayo zaselwandle iye yehla ngenxa yokuba ukwaziswa koomatshini kwiindawo zokuhlala zendalo kunye neqondo eliphezulu longcoliseko kunye nokuloba ngokugqithileyo. Ezinye iintlobo ziye zanyamalala ezinje ngeeflamingo kunye neauk enkulu. Olu hlobo lokugqibela luphelile kuwo wonke umhlaba.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga noLwandle lwaseMantla kunye neempawu zalo.


Yiba ngowokuqala ukuphawula

Shiya uluvo lwakho

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa. ezidingekayo ziphawulwe *

*

*

  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.