Imbali yokutshintsha kwemozulu. Xa imethane ilawula imozulu

imethane yomoya wokuqala

Bekusoloko kuthethwa njalo imo iyatshintsha Yinto yanamhlanje ethe yabangela, ubukhulu becala, kukukhutshwa okukhulu kweegreenhouse gases emoyeni, ezinje nge imethane kunye ne-CO2, ngabantu ukusukela kwinguqu kwezamashishini. Nangona kunjalo, ungacinga ntoni ukuba bendinokuxelela ukuba ngaphezulu kwezigidigidi zeminyaka ukusukela oko uMhlaba wabakho kubekho ezinye iinguqu zemozulu?

Umoya ojikeleze umhlaba awusoloko uhleli njenganamhlanje. Ibe kwiindidi ezininzi zokuqanjwa. Ithini imbali yenguqu yemozulu?

Xa imethane ilawula imozulu

Malunga ne-2.300 yezigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo, iintsholongwane ezingaqhelekanga zaphefumla ubomi obutsha kwiplanethi "yentsha" yelo xesha. Imalunga necyanobacteria. Bazalisa iplanethi ngomoya. Nangona kunjalo, kukholelwa ukuba kwakude kudala ngaphambi kweli xesha, elinye iqela lezinto ezinee-unicellular lahlala emhlabeni kwaye lalinokwenza ukuba kuhlalwe kulo. Sithetha ngemethanogens.

I-Methanogens zizinto ezineseli enye ezinokuphila kuphela phantsi kweemeko apho akukho oksijini kwaye badibanisa imethane ngexesha lokucolwa kwemveliso njengemveliso yenkunkuma. Namhlanje sinokufumana kuphela i-methanogens kwiindawo ezifana namathumbu ezilo ezirhwaphilizayo, emazantsi eentlenge nakwezinye iindawo emhlabeni apho ioksijini ingekhoyo.

methane

Imolekyuli yeMethane

Njengoko sisazi, i-methane yirhasi yegreenhouse leyo igcina ubushushu obuphindwe ngama-23 kune-carbon dioxide, kungoko kukho intelekelelo yokuba kwiminyaka emibini yeebhiliyoni zomhlaba, imethanogens ilawula. Imethane eyenziwe ngohlobo lwezi zidalwa yabangela isiphumo sokugcina okusingqongileyo okunesiphumo esikhulu kwimozulu yeplanethi yonke.

Namhlanje, i-methane iqhubeka kuphela emoyeni kangangeminyaka eli-10, ngenxa yobukho beoksijini. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba umoya ojikeleze umhlaba ubuswele iimolekyuli zeoksijini, imethane inokuqhubeka kangangeminyaka engama-10.000 XNUMX. Ngelo xesha, ukukhanya kwelanga kwakungekomelele njengokuba kunjalo ngoku, ngoko ke umthamo wobushushu obufikelela kumphezulu womhlaba ngaloo ndlela ushushubeza iplanethi, wawungaphantsi kakhulu. Kungenxa yoko le nto, ukwandisa ubushushu beplanethi kunye nokwenza indawo yokuhlala, Imethane yayifuneka ukuze ibambe ubushushu.

Isiphumo seGreenhouse yomoya wamandulo

Xa uMhlaba wabumba malunga ne-4.600 yezigidigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo, iLanga lakhupha ukukhanya okulingana ne-70% yento eyenzayo namhlanje. Yiyo loo nto, ngaphambi kwexesha lokuqala lomkhenkce (malunga ne-2.300 yezigidigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo) i-atmosfera yayixhomekeke ngokupheleleyo kwisiphumo se-greenhouse.

Iingcali zotshintsho lwemozulu zacinga kwiammonia njengegesi yendlu yokugcina ubushushu egcina ubushushu kwimo yokuqala, kuba le yigesi enamandla afudumeleyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngokungabikho kweoksijini yomoya, imitha yelanga evela elangeni iyitshabalalisa ngokukhawuleza iammonia, isenza imethane ibe yeyona gesi iphambili ngelo xesha.

Kwigalelo lobushushu kwiatmosfera kunye nefuthe lokugcina kwakhona songeza i-CO2. Ngoko, uxinzelelo lwakhe lwalusezantsi kakhuluKungenxa yoko le nto ingenakuba ngunobangela wesiphumo sendawo yokugcina greenhouse. I-CO2 ikhutshelwe kuphela emoyeni ngokwasendalweni, ngenxa yeentaba-mlilo.

mlilo

I-volcano ikhuphe i-CO2 kunye ne-hydrogen

Indima ye methane kunye nenkungu epholileyo iplanethi

Indima kaMethane kulawulo lwemozulu yantlandlolo yaqala malunga neminyaka eziibhiliyoni ezi-3.500 eyadlulayo, xa imethanogens yenze irhasi yemethane elwandle njengemveliso yenkunkuma. Le gesi yabamba ubushushu belanga kwindawo ebanzi yombane wombane. Ikwavumele ukudlula kwimitha yelanga, ke phakathi kwezi zinto zongezwa kwi-CO2 esele ikho, bagcina iplanethi kubushushu obuhlala abantu.

I-Methanogens isinde ngcono kumaqondo aphezulu obushushu. Njengokuba amaqondo obushushu esibaxekileyo, nawo umjikelo wamanzi kunye nokhukuliseko lwamatye lwaye lwandiswa. Le nkqubo yokukhukuliseka kwamatye, ikhupha i-CO2 kwiatmosfera. Kakhulu Uxinzelelo lwe-methane kunye ne-CO2 kumoya walingana.

Iilwandle zamandulo

I-chemistry yeatmosfere ibangele ukuba iimolekyuli ze-methane zenze i-polymerize (zenze imixokelelwane yeemolekyuli ze-methane ezidityaniswe kunye) kwaye zenze ii-hydrocarbon ezinzima. Ezi hydrocarbon ziyajiya zibe ngamasuntswana athi, phezulu kakhulu, bakha inkungu yeorenji.  Eli lifu lothuli lwembuyekezo lihlawulele isiphumo sokugcina ngokufaka ukukhanya okubonakalayo kwisiganeko kwimitha yelanga kunye nokuyikhuphela kwakhona emajukujukwini. Ngale ndlela, kunciphise ubushushu obufikelela kumphezulu weplanethi kwaye kwaba negalelo kupholiso lwemozulu kunye nokucothisa imveliso yemethane.

Thermophilic methanogens

I-Thermophilic methanogens yile iphila kumanqanaba aphezulu obushushu. Ngesi sizathu, xa kwakusenziwa inkungu yehydrocarbon, njengoko amaqondo obushushu ehlabathi apholile kwaye ehla, ii-thermophilic methanogens azinakuphila kwezi meko. Ngemozulu ebandayo kunye nobungozi bemethanogen yabemi be-thermophilic, zatshintsha iimeko emhlabeni.

Umoya ojikeleze umhlaba unokugcina kuphela uxinzelelo lwe-methane phezulu kakhulu ukuba i-methane ngeyenziwe ngesantya esilingana nesangoku. Nangona kunjalo, i-methanogens ayivelisanga methane eninzi njengoko abantu besenza kwimisebenzi yethu yoshishino.

imethanogens

Thermophilic methanogens

I-Methanogens isondla i-hydrogen kunye ne-CO2, ivelisa imethane njengemveliso yenkunkuma. Abanye abanye badla i-acetate kunye nezinye iindidi ezahlukeneyo ezivela ekonakaleni kwe-anaerobic yezinto eziphilayo. Kungenxa yoko le nto namhlanje i-methanogens Ziyachuma kuphela esiswini sezilwanyana ezirhintyhisayo, isilika ebangela ukuba umhlaba ugcwele irayisi kunye nezinye iindawo ezinetyhefu. Kodwa kuba umoya wokuqala wawungenayo ioksijini, yonke ihydrogen eyayikhutshwa ziintaba-mlilo yayigcinwa elwandle kwaye yayisetyenziswa ziimethanogens, kuba yayingenayo ioksijini ekufikeleleni kuyo.

Inkungu ye "anti greenhouse" isiphumo

Ngenxa yalo mjikelo wempendulo eyakhayo (iqondo lobushushu eliphezulu, ii-methanojeni ezingaphezulu, imethane eninzi, ubushushu obungakumbi, ubushushu obungaphezulu…) iplanethi yaba sisitshisa shushu esitshisayo kangangokuba kuphela zii-microorganisms ze-thermophilic ezakwaziyo ukuziqhelanisa nale meko intsha. Nangona kunjalo, njengoko benditshilo ngaphambili, kwavela inkungu ephuma kwiihydrocarbons ezathutha esi siganeko ngemitha yelanga ukwenza imozulu ipholile. Ngale ndlela, ukuveliswa kwemethane kwamiswa kwaye amaqondo obushushu kunye nokwenziwa komoya kuya kuqala ukuzinza.

Inkungu yehydrocarbon

Ukuba sithelekisa iinkungu kunye nezo I-Titan, eyona satellite inkulu kaSaturn, siyabona ukuba ikwanombala ofanayo weorenji ohambelana nomaleko oxineneyo wamasuntswana ehydrocarbon, awenziwa xa imethane iphendula ngokukhanya kwelanga. Nangona kunjalo, loo maleko wehydrocarbons enza umphezulu weTitan kwi -179 degrees Celsius. Lo moya ubandayo kuneplanethi yoMhlaba ebikwimbali yayo yonke.

Ukuba ifu le-hydrocarbon yomhlaba belifikile koxinano olunalo i-Titan's, ngesele laphambuka ukukhanya kwelanga okwaneleyo ukuze kuthintelwe isiphumo esinamandla sokukhulisa ubushushu kwimethane. Umhlaba wonke ubuya kuba ngumkhenkce, ngaloo ndlela ubulale zonke i-methanogens. Umahluko phakathi kweTitan kunye noMhlaba kukuba le nyanga yeSaturn ayinayo i-CO2 namanzi, ngenxa yoko imethane ikhupha ngomphunga ngokulula.

Titan

I-Titan, eyona satellite inkulu kaSaturn

Ukuphela kwexesha le-methane

Inkungu eyakhiwe kwimethane ayizange ihlale ngonaphakade. Zintathu izinto ezibengezelelweyo ukusukela ngeProterozoic, kwaye imethane inokuchaza ukuba kutheni zisenzeka nje.

I-glaciation yokuqala ibizwa ngokuba yi-Huronian glaciation kwaye phantsi kwamatye amadala afunyenwe phantsi kwe-glacial deposits kukho i-uraninite kunye ne-pyrite, iiminerali ezimbini ezibonisa inqanaba eliphantsi kakhulu leoksijini yomoya. Nangona kunjalo, ngaphezulu kwe-glacial layers, ilitye elibomvu lentlabathi liyajongwa eliqukethe ihematite, isimbiwa esenziwe Iindawo ezinobutyebi beoksijini. Konke oku kubonisa ukuba i-Huraciation glaciation yenzeke ngokuchanekileyo xa amanqanaba eoksijini e-atmosferi aqala ukunyuka isibhakabhaka.

Kule meko intsha ityebile kwioksijini, imethanogens kunye nezinye izinto eziphilayo ezazikade zilawula iplanethi, zanyamalala ngokuthe ngcembe okanye zabonwa zisiba ngokuxineneyo kwiindawo zokuhlala ezinemiqobo. Ngapha koko, uxinzelelo lwe-methane ngesele luhleli lunye okanye luphezulu kunanamhlanje, ukuba amanqanaba eoksijini ebegcinwe ephantsi.

glaciation

Oku kuchaza ukuba kutheni eMhlabeni, ngexesha leProterozoic, kwakungekho glaciation phantse i-1.500 yezigidigidi zeminyakaNangona iLanga lalibuthathaka. Kuqikelelwa ukuba ukunyuka okwesibini komoya weoksijini, okanye kwi-sulphate echithakeleyo, nako bekuya kubangela iziqendu zobudala bomkhenkce, ngokunciphisa isiphumo sokukhusela imethane.

Njengoko ubona, imeko-bume yoMhlaba ibingahlali injalo namhlanje. Kwenzekile ukuba ayinayo ioksijini (imolekyuli esiyifunayo namhlanje ukuze siphile) nalapho imethane ilawula imozulu kwaye ilawula iplanethi. Ngaphaya koko, emva kweminyaka yeqhwa, uxinzelelo lweoksijini lukhuphukile lude luzinze kwaye lilingane nelangoku, ngelixa imethane incitshisiwe yaya kwiindawo ezinomda. Okwangoku, uxinzelelo lwe-methane luyanda ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwezinto ezenziwa ngabantu kunye negalelo kwimpembelelo yendalo kunye nokutshintsha kwemozulu ngoku.


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