Ubushushu beMeditera

ulwandle lasemediterranean

Siyazi ukuba utshintsho lwemozulu lubangela ukwanda kwamaqondo obushushu kwihlabathi jikelele. Oku kuchaphazela i-ikhosistim ezahlukeneyo kunye neentlobo ezihlala kuzo. Enye inkqubo yendalo echatshazelwa kukutshintsha kwemozulu ekufutshane nathi luLwandle lweMeditera. I Ubushushu beMeditera ifikelela kwimida engazange irekhodwe ngaphambili. Konke oku kuneziphumo ezimandundu kulungelelwaniso lwendalo lwe-ecosystem.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela indlela utshintsho lwemozulu oluchaphazela ngayo ukushisa kweMeditera kunye nemiphumo yayo.

Ubushushu beMeditera

ukunyuka kobushushu bolwandle

Sekuqhelekile ukuthetha ngamaza obushushu, kwaye kutshanje siye saqala nokufaka igama elithi "amaza obushushu olwandle" kwisigama sethu. Ngexesha lehlobo lika-2022, I-Meditera iye yafumana enye yezi ziganeko, eziye zaneziphumo ezibi kwi-ecosystem yolwandle kunye neenkqubo.. Amanani akhoyo abonisa ukuba ubushushu beMeditera buyanda.

Amaza obushushu olwandle sisiganeko esenzeka xa ubushushu bamanzi olwandle bunyuka ngaphezu komndilili wamaxesha onyaka ixesha elide.

Inkcazo yamaza obushushu olwandle, esekwe ngabaphandi, ibhekisa kwixesha kunye neqondo lokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu kwiindawo ezithile zolwandle. Ngokukodwa, xa amaqondo obushushu kwezi imimandla idlula i-10% yamaxabiso arekhodiweyo ngelo xesha lonyaka kwaye iqhubeke ubuncinane iintsuku ezintlanu ezilandelelanayo, ithathwa njengobushushu baselwandle.

Amaza obushushu elwandle, aziwa njengamaza obushushu olwandle, anokuhamba umgama omde wamawaka eekhilomitha kwaye aqhubeke iinyanga ezininzi. Zinokwahlulwa zibe ziindidi ezine ezahlukeneyo ngokobunzulu bazo, amanqanaba amane okuhlela agqithise, abukhali, anamandla kwaye aphakathi.

Iingcali ziye zachonga izinto ezine eziphambili ezinegalelo ekuyilweni kwamaza obushushu olwandle. Ezi zinto ziquka ukufuduswa kobushushu obusuka emoyeni busiya elwandle, utshintsho kwiipateni zomoya ezinokukhokelela ekunyukeni, utshintsho kwimisinga yolwandle, kunye iziganeko ezifana ne-El Niño, ebangela ukufudumala okungaqhelekanga kwamanzi akummandla we-ikhweyitha wePasifiki.

Ubungqina bucacile kwaye abunakuphikiswa: iqondo lokushisa loLwandle lweMeditera liqhubeka linyuka ngokuqhubekayo kwaye lingenasiphelo.

Ukutshintsha kwemozulu kunye nobushushu beMeditera

Ukutshintsha kwemozulu yeMeditera

Upapasho lwamva nje oluvela kwiZiko leMeditera yeZifundo zokuSingqongileyo, i-CEAM, lubonisa idatha yamva nje malunga nobushushu bolwandle kwindawo yeMeditera. Injongo yolu phando kukubeka iliso kumaxesha ngamaxesha kunye notshintsho kwiqondo lobushushu bomhlaba, njengoko lisebenza njengesalathisi esithembekileyo sokutshintsha kwemozulu.

Ngexesha lasehlotyeni lika-2022, iMeditera yaba nobushushu baselwandle okubangele ukwanda okubonakalayo kwamaqondo obushushu, ukugqitha umndilili ongaphezu kwe-6ºC kwiindawo ezithile. Ngokutsho kwedatha ekhoyo, lo bushushu bolwandle buhlala kwada kwakwindla. Nangona kunjalo, le ngxelo ibalaselisa ukuba la maqondo obushushu aphezulu ngokungaqhelekanga aqhubekeka ukuya kwixesha lasebusika.

Kwiinyanga zamva nje, ummandla weMeditera uye wafumana ukwehla kobushushu obuqhelekileyo bomphezulu. Nangona kunjalo, amaqondo obushushu ahlala engaphezulu komndilili wawo ngoFebruwari 2023 njengoko kuxelwe yidatha yemozulu.

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba uninzi, okanye i-90%, yamandla eveliswa yi-greenhouse gases ifunxwa ziilwandle, ibangela ukunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu. Ulwandle lweMeditera, ngakumbi, ifumana ubushushu obukhawuleza ngama-20% kunomndilili wokunyuka kwehlabathi ochaphazela ezinye iilwandle neelwandle.

Ummandla weMeditera ufumene ixesha lasebusika elipholile ngokungaqhelekanga, eliphawulwa ngamaqondo obushushu angaphezulu komndilili.

Ipateni yobushushu

Ubushushu beMeditera

Kuyabonakala ukuba kukho indlela ephawulekayo yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu. Ngokweenkcukacha eziqokelelweyo ukususela ngo-1982, Ulwandle lweMeditera lufumene umndilili wokunyuka kwe-1,5ºC. Ukongeza, iinyanga zobusika zikaDisemba, uJanuwari noFebruwari ziye zafumana olona tshintsho lubalulekileyo lwenyanga kubushushu obuphezulu.

NgoDisemba ka-2022, i-avareji yobushushu bomphezulu, ilungelelaniselwe utshintsho lwamaxesha onyaka, yarekhodwa kwi-1,6ºC. Kwinyanga elandelayo, ngoJanuwari, inyuke kancinane ukuya kwi-1,7ºC. NgoFebruwari, i-anomaly Ubushushu bonyuke ngakumbi ukuya kwi-1,8ºC, ngaphezulu kwexabiso eliphindwe kabini kuluhlu lwedatha yembali yaloo nyanga.

Ukongeza kwi-CEAM, i-Bulletin esemthethweni ye-Balearic Islands Observation System iphinda ibonise ukuguquka kweqondo lokushisa eliphakathi kweMeditera. Ukususela ngo-Epreli 13, idatha ibonise ukunyuka okubalulekileyo kwiqondo lokushisa eliphezulu, ukufikelela kwi-peak ye-16,75ºC. Eli xabiso liphezulu kune-avareji kwaye likwadlula ipesenti ezingama-90.

Ngokweerekhodi ezisemthethweni, ayimangalisi into yokuba amanzi angaphezulu kuLwandle lweBalearic ayengaphezulu komndilili ngexesha le-94% yeentsuku ngo-2022. Ngomhla we-11 ka-Agasti, le ndawo yade yafikelela kwimbali yayo ephezulu, kunye nobushushu obuphakathi kwe-29,3ºC.

Iziphumo ezinokubakho

Ngokwengxelo evela kwiSpanish Institute of Oceanography, kwafunyaniswa ukuba phakathi kowe-1948 nowe-1970 kukho ukuncipha kwamaqondo obushushu omoya nolwandle. Okuphikisanayo, Ukusukela phakathi kwiminyaka yee-1970 ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, kukho ukunyuka kweendlela zobushushu.

Phakathi kowe-1948 no-2005, ukwanda kobushushu bolwandle kunxweme lweMeditera eSpeyin kwakuphakathi kwe-0,12º C kunye ne-0,5º C ngokomndilili.

Ngokutsho kwengxelo ye-WWF, uLwandle lweMeditera lufudumala ngesantya se-20% ngokukhawuleza kunomlinganiselo oqhelekileyo wokufudumala kwehlabathi kwezinye iindawo zamanzi. Ngelixa ukunyuka kwe-1,5ºC kunokungabonakali kubalulekile ekuqaleni, kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba iziphumo eziziphumo zinokuba zikhulu, ngakumbi ukuba ukufudumala kuqhubeka.

Njengoko ubushushu beMeditera bukhula, Kukho ithuba lokuba lo mmandla uhamba kwinkqubo yetropiki. Ngelishwa, ukunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu kukwabangela ukulahleka kweentlobo zezityalo zomthonyama, njengoko zifuduswa zizinto ezibizwa ngokuba ziyingozi.

Iziphumo zezenzo ezinjalo azinampembelelo kuphela kwizityalo ezisingqongileyo kunye nobomi bezilwanyana, kodwa zikwanabela nakwimozulu yommandla, zibangele utshintsho ekusasazweni kwemvula kunye nokubakho kwezehlo zemozulu ezimandundu.

Impembelelo yokunyuka kwamaqondo obushushu ayiphelelanga nje kuLwandle lweMeditera; Inempembelelo yehlabathi kuzo zonke iilwandle neelwandle. Ngo-Epreli kulo nyaka, umndilili wobushushu bomhlaba weelwandlekazi unyuke waya kuma-21,1ºC. Iziphumo zesiganeko se-El Niño kulo mkhwa azikaqinisekiswa.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nendlela utshintsho lwemozulu oluchaphazela ngayo ubushushu beMeditera.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.