Ulwandle lwaseMalacca

Ukuhamba kwindlela ye-malacca

El Ulwandle lwaseMalacca Yingalo yolwandle edibanisa uLwandle lwase-Andaman (uLwandle lwase-Indian) kunye noLwandle lwase-China lwaseMzantsi (uLwandle lwePacific). Imi phakathi konxweme olusemntla-mpuma wesiqithi sase-Indonesia saseSumatra kunye nonxweme olusemazantsi-ntshona kuSingasiqithi weMalay. Inokubaluleka okukhulu kwezoqoqosho kunye nokhenketho.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga neStrait yeMalacca, iimpawu zayo, ukugweba, imozulu kunye nokunye okuninzi.

Strait of Malacca kunye nemozulu yayo

Ubunzima be-malacca

Ummandla opheleleyo we-Strait malunga ne-65.000 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha. Imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-80 ubude kwaye imile okwefaneli, eyona ibanzi kumntla-ntshona kwaye imxinwa kakhulu kumzantsi-mpuma, ifikelela kububanzi obuyi-2,8 yeekhilomitha kwindawo eyaziwa ngokuba yiPhilips Strait eSingapore.

I-Strait ye-Malacca ithatha igama layo kwi-Malacca (eyayifudula i-Malacca), i-25th- kunye ne-30th yenkulungwane ebalulekileyo yorhwebo izibuko kunxweme lwaseMalay. Indawo esemazantsi e-Strait i-XNUMX-XNUMX yeemitha ubunzulu kuphela, nangona ubunzulu buyanda njengoko buhamba busiya kuLwandle lwase-Andaman. Ngenxa yomlambo omkhulu ogeleza emanzini e-strait, isalathisi salo setyuwa siphantsi.

Kukho iziqithana ezininzi kule ngxingwa, ezinye zazo zixakwe yingqaqa nentlabathi, yaye nomlomo osemazantsi we strait kunzima ukudlula. Ikhoyo ngoku kwi-strait ihlala ihamba ukusuka kumzantsi-mpuma ukuya kumntla-ntshona.

Imozulu yeStrait ishushu kwaye ifumile, ichatshazelwa yimonsuni yasemntla-mpuma ebusika nakumazantsi-ntshona emonsoon ehlotyeni. Umyinge wemvula ngonyaka uphakathi kwe-1.900 kunye ne-2.500 mm. Ubushushu bomphezulu wamanzi buyohluka phakathi kwe-2ºC kunye ne-31ºC, ngokuxhomekeke kwingingqi kunye nexesha lonyaka lonyaka.

Ukubaluleka kweStrait yaseMalacca

ukubaluleka kokuhamba

Namhlanje, amakhulu amawaka eekhonteyina ezikwiinqanawa ezingaphezu kwama-90 000 atyhutyha iStrait of Malacca, ethwele malunga nekota yezinto ezithengiswayo zehlabathi, kuquka i-petroleum, amalahle, ioli yesundu eyenziwe eTshayina, eMzantsi Korea, eJapan, naseTaiwan zibalulekile kuqoqosho lwaseTshayina naseVietnam, kunye nekofu exabisekileyo evela eIndonesia.

I-Strait yeyona ndlela iphambili yokuthumela ngenqanawa phakathi koLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya kunye noLwandlekazi lwePasifiki, idibanisa uqoqosho olukhulu lwaseAsia njengeIndiya, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea.

Ukuqonda ukubaluleka kwe-geopolitical yeStrait yaseMalacca kurhulumente waseTshayina, kufuneka sijonge kwakhona imeko yangoku ye-geopolitical dynamics kunye notyalo-mali loqoqosho kulo mmandla, njengoko amagunya amakhulu kummandla abonise umdla othile ekukhuseleni ilungelo lendlela.

Qoqosho

uqoqosho lwe-malacca

Ngokuphumeza iiprojekthi zophuhliso zikaRhulumente, urhulumente waseTshayina uye wandisa impembelelo yakhe nolawulo kulo mmandla. Oku amathandabuzo kwamanye amazwe awanyukanga, ngakumbi i-Indiya, enye yezona zichasi ezinkulu zezopolitiko zaseChina, ezilawula ukuthunyelwa ngaphandle kwe-Western Strait.

Oku ngokungathandabuzekiyo kuphakamisa inkxalabo kurhulumente waseTshayina, njengoko umkhosi wasemanzini waseIndiya usemngciphekweni wokuthintela iinqanawa zemithwalo ezithwele i-oyile eziya eTshayina, isoyikisa ngokucudisa amandla esigebenga saseAsia kunye nomthamo wemveliso. Ngokukwanjalo, iStrait yaseMalacca inomkhosi obalulekileyo ovela e-United States, omnye umchasi omkhulu wezopolitiko kunye nezorhwebo waseTshayina.

Yiyo loo nto, kumxholo weNdlela eNtsha yeSilika, urhulumente waseTshayina ukhuthaze ngamandla amanyathelo afana ne "Ibhanti kunye neNdlela", ezama ukunciphisa ukuthembela kwiindlela ezimxinwa.

Ezinye zeeprojekthi ezenziweyo ukunqanda izoyikiso ezinokubakho ezivela eIndiya yipaseji yezoqoqosho phakathi kwePakistan neTshayina, enye yeendlela eziphambili zecandelo lomhlaba lendlela entsha yeSilika. Ipaseji, equka uHola weKarakoram, oololiwe abaninzi, amazibuko awomileyo asixhenxe kunye nokwakhiwa kwemimandla yezoqoqosho elithoba ekhethekileyo, iya kuvumela abavelisi baseTshayina ukuba bafikelele kuLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya ngaphandle kokudlula kwinkalo yempembelelo yaseIndiya. Ngokufanayo, iiprojekthi zokwakha izibuko ezenziwa ngurhulumente waseTshayina eSri Lanka zineenjongo ezifanayo ze-geostrategic.

Enye iprojekthi enomdla ukusuka kwindawo yokujonga i-geostrategic yi-Kra Canal eThailand, eya kunciphisa ixesha kunye neendleko zokuthutha ukuthunyelwa kweTshayina kunye nokuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe. Ukongeza, iprojekthi iya kunciphisa umthamo wemithwalo edlula kwiStrait yaseMalacca, leyo imele i-70% yomthamo wayo uwonke.

U kuhamba

Njengowona mzila wenqanawa wendalo ophakathi koLwandlekazi lwaseIndiya kunye noLwandle lwaseTshayina oluMazantsi, iStrait yeMalacca ngokwembali ibiyeyona ndlela imfutshane yokuthumela ngenqanawa phakathi kweIndiya neTshayina, kwaye ngaloo ndlela yenye yezona ndlela zixakekileyo zokuhambisa emhlabeni.

Ngenxa yokubaluleka kwayo ngokwesicwangciso, iStrait ngokwembali ibilawulwa ngama-Arabhu, amaPhuthukezi, amaDatshi namaNgesi. ISingapore lelinye lawona mazibuko abalulekileyo ehlabathini, abekwe kumazantsi esiphelo somsinga. Kuqikelelwa ukuba zingaphezu kwama-50.000 XNUMX iinqanawa ezithwala imithwalo ezidlula kulo mjelo nyaka ngamnye, yaye ioli ekwisihlanu sehlabathi ithuthwa ngolwandle.

Iimpawu zoMzimba kwiStrait yaseMalacca

Iimpawu ezibonakalayo zeStrait of Malacca, ngakumbi ubunzulu bamanzi ayo, yimiqobo emikhulu yokuhamba. Ngenxa yesi sizathu, iinqanawa ezine-overdraft azikwazi ukudlula kulo mmandla kwaye zijikelwa kwiLombok Strait eIndonesia. Ukuxinana okuthe rhoqo kweenqanawa emngxunyeni kunye neengxaki ezithile zokhuseleko kuhambo lokuhamba ngenqanawa eziye zabangela ukuba kuphandwe kwezinye iindlela, njengeKra Isthmus eThailand (ifoto engasentla ngasekhohlo), okuthetha ukugrumba umjelo odibanisa uLwandle lwaseAndaman kunye nolwandle. Igophe laseThailand.

IStrait yaseMalacca imalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-900 ubude, imile okwefaneli, kuphela iikhilomitha ezingama-65 ububanzi emazantsi, kwaye inabela malunga neekhilomitha ezingama-250 ukuya emantla phakathi kweSumatra neKra Isthmus. Kwezinye iindawo, ububanzi beStrait of Malacca bungaphantsi kweekhilomitha ezintathu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neStrait yaseMalacca kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1.   Cesar sitsho

    Eli nqaku ndilijonga njengelinexabiso elikhulu ngokwembali nakwindawo