Amanani kaMaxwell

Ubalo maxwell

Ukutyhubela imbali kuye kwakho izazinzulu ezininzi ezenze igalelo elikhulu kwinzululwazi ebangele inkqubela phambili enkulu. Le yimeko ye-physicist yaseScotland uJames Clerk Maxwell. Le fiziksi yaqulunqa ithiyori yeklasikhi ye-electromagnetism ngokunciphisa inyani yokuba ukukhanya kwenziwa ngamaza ombane nawomazibuthe aqhubeka ngokuqhubekayo esithubeni. Zonke ezi zinto zincitshisiweyo zaziswa kwifayile ye- Izibalo zikaMaxwell ukubonisa kunye nokubonisa ithiyori yakho. Le ithiyori yakhokelela kuqikelelo lobukho bamaza kanomathotholo kunye namaza kanomathotholo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke i-biography, izinto zembali malunga nokulingana kukaMaxwell.

UMaxwell Biography

Isazinzulu esilungileyo

Gcina ukhumbula ukuba zonke izazinzulu ziqala emsebenzini owenziwe zezinye izazinzulu ezidlulileyo. Le ntetho ibonakaliswa nguNewton kwibinzana elithi "Zonke izazinzulu zisebenza emagxeni ezigebenga". Oku kuthetha ukuba uninzi lwezinto ezenziwayo zenziwa ngenxa yomsebenzi awayewenzile ngaphambili kwezinye izazinzulu. Le nyaniso iyinyani ngokukodwa kwimeko kaMaxwell kuba wayekwazi ukudibanisa lonke ulwazi olusele lukhona iminyaka eyi-150 malunga nomsebenzi wakhe. Ngale ndlela, uya kuba nakho ukubonisa imigaqo-siseko yombane, umazibuthe, ukukhanya kokukhanya kunye nokunxibelelana komzimba.

UJames Clerk uMaxwell wazalelwa e-Edinburgh ngo-1831. Usapho lwakhe lwalukumgangatho ophakathi. Le ndoda ibisoloko ibonakalisa umdla okhethekileyo kwasebuntwaneni bayo. Kwiminyaka eyi-14 kuphela ndandisele ndibhalile iphepha. Kweli phepha ndichaze iindlela zokuqala zoomatshini ukuze bakwazi ukunyanga amagophe. Wafunda kwiiyunivesithi zase-Edinburgh naseCambridge apho wothusa abafundi nootitshala banikwa amandla okusombulula iingxaki ngokwamanani. Zonke iingxaki zavela kwizifundo zezibalo nezeFiziksi ezazinzima kwabanye abafundi.

Kwiminyaka engama-23 waphumelela kwizibalo kwiKholeji yaseTrinity Kwaye kwiminyaka emibini kamva wakwazi ukufumana isikhundla njengoNjingalwazi weFilosofi eMarischal College, eAberdeen. Wahlala kule ndawo iminyaka emi-4 kwaye wayesenza ulwazi oluninzi. Ngendlela yokuba ngo-1860 wakwazi ukufumana isikhundla esifanayo kodwa kwiKholeji yaseKing yodumo, eLondon. Kungoku ngeli xesha elona xesha lihle kakhulu lomsebenzi wakhe wonke. Kule ndawo kwakukho uqoqosho olungcono kakhulu olwamvumela ukuba enze iimvavanyo kwaye avavanye iingcinga zakhe.

Izibalo zikaMaxwell

maxwell equations kuchaziwe

Ubalo lukaMaxwell lelona lifa lilungileyo lishiyekileyo le sayensi. Kuba inqanaba lakhe kunye negalelo lakhe kwisayensi lalikhula, Wakwazi ukujoyina iRoyal Society ngo-1861. Kulapho uluntu okanye umbono we-electromagnetic wokukhanya wabuyela nosapho lwakhe kwikhaya labazali bakhe eScotland. Wonyulwa njengomlawuli welebhu yeCavendish eCambridge ngo-1871. Ekugqibeleni wabulawa ngumhlaza wesisu eneminyaka engama-48 ngo-1879.

Lupapasho lwenqaku elinesihloko esithi "ithiyori eguqukayo yentsimi ye-electromagnetic field" apho ubalo lukaMaxwell lwavela okokuqala. La malinganiselo ngulowo asebenzela ukubonisa ngokucacileyo nangokucacileyo yonke imithetho yezenzululwazi ngombane kunye nemagnethi. Kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba zazenziwe ukusukela kwinkulungwane ye-XNUMX kwaye bebexhomekeke kwimithetho yaseAmpère, Faraday neLenz. Okwangoku, isichazi-magama se vector esisetyenzisiweyo saziswa kwiminyaka kamva nguHeaviside no Gibbs.

Ukubaluleka kokulingana kukaMaxwell

Iifomula zemathematika

Ixabiso lala manani kwaye alihlali nje kuphela kunxibelelaniso lwazo zonke izimvo zazo zonke izazinzulu ezazibonelela ngolwazi ngombane kunye nemagnethi. Kwaye kunjalo Amanani kaMaxwell atyhila ubudlelwane obusondeleyo phakathi kombane kunye nemagnethi. Ukusuka kwii-equation, ezinye ii-equations zinokuncitshiswa, ezinje ngokulinganisa amaza asebenza ekuchazeni ubukho bamaza endalo yombane ekwaziyo ukusasaza ngesantya sokukhanya.

Ukusuka koku kunokugqitywa ekubeni ukukhanya kunye nemagnethi zizinto zento enye kwaye ukukhanya kukuphazamiseka kombane. Ndiyabulela koku, umsebenzi kaMaxwell usebenze ekudibaniseni nasekuhlanganiseni i-optics kwi-electromagnetism kwaye watyhila ubume be-electromagnetic obukukhanya. Ukukhanya kwe-electromagnetic of light kwakubangelwa kukuzama kwilabhoratri kwaye kwenziwa ngugqirha waseJamani uHeinrich Hertz ngonyaka we-1887, iminyaka emva kokubhubha kukaMaxwell.

Oku kunokwenziwa ngokwakha i-oscillator eyayisebenza njenge-emitter kunye ne-resonator esebenza njengomamkeli. Ngombulelo kwezi zixhobo sikwazile ukwenza amaza kwaye sawamkela kwindawo ekude kwaye oku kubangele injineli yase-Italiya enegama UGuillermo Marconi angabuphucula ubuchule bokuvelisa utshintsho kwezobuchwephesha. Olu tshintsho lobuchwephesha kunxibelelwano lukanomathotholo. Ezinye zezinto zemihla ngemihla esinazo namhlanje, ezinje ngeefowuni eziphathwayo, zisekwe kule teknoloji ifunyenwe nguGuillermo Marconi.

Zonke ezi zizathu zanele ukukholelwa ukuba ii-equation zikaMaxwell, ezinokuthi ekuqaleni zibonakale ngathi ziyimfundiso ngakumbi kunenzululwazi esisiseko, ziye zaphela zinezicelo ezikhulu kwitekhnoloji yanamhlanje. Ukusetyenziswa kwee-equations zikaMaxwell kufike ukuguqula umhlaba ngendlela yokuba sinokunxibelelana ukude ngokusebenzisa unxibelelwano ngocingo.

Ilifa

Yonke le minikelo ayikhawulelwanga kuphela kwithiyori ye-electromagnetism kunye nokukhanya. Gcina ukhumbule ukuba uMaxwell wayengusosayensi onomdla kwaye wazinikela ekufundeni i-kinetics yeegesi kunye ne-thermodynamics. Le miba isetyenziswe kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zokuhlalutya iinkcukacha ukwenzela ukufumanisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuba i-particle kwi-dilute gas ine-velocity. Oku kufunyenwe kwaba Namhlanje ukubiza ngokuba kukusasazwa kukaMaxwell-Boltzmann.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nokulingana kukaMaxwell kunye nokubaluleka kwazo.


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