UStephen Hawking

UStephen Hawking

Siyavuma ukuba eyona nto ibalaseleyo kule nkulungwane yama-XNUMX ukuza kuthi ga ngoku yileya UStephen Hawking. Imalunga nendoda eyayingumbhali we-physics, i-cosmologist kunye ne-popularizer yesayensi evela kwi-Great Britain kwaye eyatshintsha indlela eyaziwa ngayo yonke indawo namhlanje. Uphando lwakhe lushiye uphawu kwimbali yesayensi kwaye imeko yakhe ibimenza umzekelo wokuziphucula.

Kule nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke i-biography kunye nokuxhaphaka kukaStephen Hawking.

Imisebenzi kaStephen Hawking

UStephen Hawking njengomfana oselula

Njengoko sisazi, uStephen Hawking akakhange enze kuphela uphando olunzulu, kodwa ubekwanayo nemeko yobuqu emenze umzekelo wokuphuculwa kwabantu abaninzi. Kwaye kuphela iminyaka yakhe engama-22 yobomi kwafunyaniswa ukuba une-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Esi sifo, esaziwa ngokuba yi-ALS, sabangela ukuba ukuhamba kwakhe kuncitshiswe kwiminyaka edlulileyo. Wayenokuhambisa nje ilungu elifutshane lomzimba wakhe. Nangona kunjalo, esi sifo asizange sihlasele amandla akhe amakhulu okuqonda. Ngesi sizathu, wakwazi ukuba yenye yezona nzulu zaziwayo kwimbali.

Igalelo eliphambili likaStephen Hawking kwisayensi lilele kwithiyori eyaziwa ngokuba yi "Inkolelo yento yonke". Wayengusosayensi wokuqala ukuzama ukudibanisa iTheory ka-Einstein yoBudlelwane obuDibeneyo kunye nemithetho yeQuantum Physics. Siyazi ukuba imithetho elawula indalo ayifani naleyo igcinwe zizazinzulu kwihlabathi elinobuncinci. Eli lizwe lelona liqokelela onke amasuntswana amancinci anje ngee-elektroni, iiproton kunye nee-neutron. Ukuxolelaniswa kwawo onke amasuntswana amancinci yenye yezona mfihlakalo zinkulu zesayensi yale mihla.

Ngaphandle kwento yokuba kukho ii-equation ezininzi kunamaxesha amandulo ukusombulula le ngxaki, uStephen Hawking uphuhlise oyena ungoyena uvulindlela. Yifomula yobushushu bomngxunya omnyama. Ngokwale nxaki kunye nale ithiyori, imingxunya emnyama inoxanduva lokukhupha imitha ethile kwaye ibizwa ngokuba yimitha yeHawking. Ukongeza, kukho ezinye iingcamango malunga nokusebenza kwendalo yonke eyenziwe yile ngcali kwiminyaka emininzi kunye neminyaka yophando. Ezinye zeethiyori ezaziwayo zezi ithiyori yexesha lokucinga kunye nalapho ibeka khona ukuba indalo iphela ayinasiphelo. Oku kubangela ukuba ixesha liqale kwelakho Isandi esikhulu.

UStephen Hawking Biografi

Isitulo esinamavili

Siza kwenza uphononongo olufutshane ngobomi besosayensi. UStephen Hawking wema ngaphandle ebuntwaneni bakhe ebulela kumgangatho wakhe wobuchule obungasentla. Kakhulu kangangokuba wazisa ithisisi yakhe yobugqirha xa wayeneminyaka engama-24 kuphela ubudala. Ithisisi yayibizwa ngokuba 'ziipropathi zoKwandisa iiYunivesithi', ibisesidlangalaleni ukusukela nge2017, kwaye kunokuboniswana nayo kwiYunivesithi yaseCambridge.

Nokuba esi sifo sinobuzaza kangangokuba sasiya sihamba sihamba kancinci, wakwazi ukukhula njengenye yezona nzulu zikhunjulwayo kwimbali kwaye wakhula ngokwasemoyeni. Watshata kabini kwaye wayenabantwana abathathu. Ngexesha leminyaka yakhe yokugqibela yobomi, uqhubeke nokupapasha kwaye enika iintetho njengesalathiso esikhulu kufundisiso lwangoku lwendalo iphela kunye nekamva loluntu njengendidi.

Phakathi kongenelelo loluntu lwamva nje, sele elumkisile ukuba abantu mabashiye iplanethi yethu ukuze baphile njengohlobo oluthile. Kubo bonke ubomi bakhe wenza imiboniso ebalulekileyo malunga nobukho bobomi kwezinye iiplanethi kunye nokubanakho kobomi obukrelekrele. Elinye lamaphupha kaStephen Hawking yayikukuhamba emajukujukwini nangona wayekwazi ukuphinda enze amava okomelela xa wayeneminyaka engama-65 ubudala, kwakonele oko kuye.

Le nzulu-nzulu yazalwa nge-8 kaJanuwari, 1942, kanye kwiminyaka engama-300 emva kokubhubha kuka Galileo. Kuqala wayefuna ukufunda imathematics kodwa ibingafumaneki kwiyunivesithi yakhe ke ngoko wafunda ifiziksi. Emva kweminyaka emithathu kwaye engakhange enze mgudu ungako, wazuza isidanga sehonours kwinzululwazi yendalo. Wazinikela ekuphandeni kwi cosmology kuba kwakungekho mntu ufunda eli candelo eOxford.

Kwakukho ngo-1963 apho watyibilika wawa ngexesha leseshini yokukhwela kwaye waqala ukuba nobunzima bokuhamba. Kulapho wafunyaniswa ukuba une-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ngeminyaka nje engama-22 yobomi, waqala ngokunciphisa ukunciphisa ukuhamba kwakhe.

Eyona minikelo

imitshato

UStephen Hawking wayengenguye umphandi omkhulu kuphela, kodwa wayekwangumbonisi obalaseleyo. Incwadi yakhe yokuqala ethandwayo yapapashwa kwi-1973 kwaye yaziwa ngokuba yi "The large scale of the space-space time." Olunye upapasho lubandakanya ubudlelwane ngokubanzi: Uphando lwe-Einstein's Centennial, kunye no-W. Israel, kunye ne-300 Years of Gravitation, kunye no-W Israel. Phakathi kweencwadi ezithandwayo uStephen Hawking apapashe zezona zithengisa kakhulu Imbali emfutshane yeXesha, iiHole ezimnyama kunye neeyunivesithi zabantwana kunye nezinye izincoko, i-Universe ngokufutshane, uyilo olukhulu, kunye nembali yam emfutshane.

Kancinci kancinci, ukuhamba kwakhe kuncitshisiwe ngakumbi nangakumbi kuwo onke amanqam omzimba. Oku kwamnyanzela ukuba axhomekeke kwisitulo. Nangona kunjalo, ukusikelwa umda komzimba wakhe akuzange kumyekise ekubeni sisazinzulu esikrelekrele. Ngo-1985 wayekhathazwa nayinyumoniya eyanyanzela oogqirha ukuba benze itracheostomy. Olu ngenelelo lubuthathaka lwabangela ukuba aphulukane nelizwi ngokusisigxina.

Enkosi kuphuhliso lwetekhnoloji, ukusukela ngo-1997, inkqubo yabo yonxibelelwano yayisekwe kwikhompyuter. Ithebhulethi efakwe kwingalo yesihlalo sakho esinamavili esisebenza kunye neebhetri zesitulo uqobo, nangona ibhetri yangaphakathi yeepilisi inokuyigcina isebenza ukuba kukho imfuneko. Yayiyinkqubo ephucukileyo yokwenza ukuba akwazi ukunxibelelana.

Wayengowokuqala ukuphuhlisa i-equation ukuzama ukudibanisa ithiyori yokuhambelana ngokubanzi kunye ne-physics ye-quantum. Weza ne-equation eyaziwa ngokuba yifomula yobushushu emngxunyeni omnyama apho umbono wakhe kukuba umngxunya omnyama awumnyama kwaphela. Kwaye yile mingxunya ikhupha imitha encinci kwaye ibizwa ngokuba yi-Hawking radiation.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi ngoStephen Hawking kunye ne-biografi yakhe.


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