ULwandle oluMnyama

Umbala wolwandle omnyama

Olunye lolwandle olunomdla kwaye lubizwa ngeempawu zalo ezizodwa ULwandle oluMnyama. Olu lwandle luchazwa lo mbala ngesizathu. Yinto enomdla kakhulu malunga nolwandle. Indawo yayo iphakathi kweYurophu neAsia kwaye yenye yezona zinto zithandabuzekayo kwabo balivayo igama lazo. Into efana nale iyenzeka kuLwandle Olubomvu.

Kule nqaku siza kufumanisa zonke iimfihlelo zoLwandle oluMnyama kwaye sikuxelele ngazo zonke iimpawu ezizodwa ezinazo. Ngaba uyafuna ukwazi ngakumbi ngaye?

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ukhenketho lolwandle oluMnyama

ULwandle oluMnyama lolona lubangela amathandabuzo amaninzi xa uthetha nalo. Umntu unokungabaza ubukho bokwenene balo mbala okanye unobangela wawo. Abantu abaninzi abaqinisekanga malunga nokuba yeyaseAsia okanye iYurophu. Inyaniso kukuba iyinxalenye yento eyayisakuba lilizwekazi elikhulu elibizwa ngokuba yiEurasia.

Phakathi kwamazwe awungqongileyo sifumana:

  • ETurkey: emazantsi oLwandle oluMnyama.
  • Bhulgariya: ukuya eNtshona.
  • ERomania: nakwiNtshona.
  • EUkraine: imi ngasentla kolu lwandle.
  • IRussia: kuseMpuma.
  • Georgia: naseMpuma.

Olu lwandle lwalusaziwa ngegama lika UPonto Euxino. Eli candelo apho uLwandle oluMnyama luphakathi kwendawo yomhlaba kunye nolwandle. Ixhume nje kuLwandle lweMeditera yiStrait encinci yeBosphorus eTurkey. Yeyona ndawo kuphela apho amanzi angenayo naphumayo anokuhlaziywa. Ukuba lo mqukumbelo ubungekho, ibiya kuba lichibi.

Ubukhulu bolwandle lolunye lwemibuzo ebuzwa kakhulu ngabantu. Ukubiza umzimba wamanzi elwandle, umphezulu wawo kufuneka ubemkhulu kakhulu. Kule meko, uLwandle oluMnyama lilinganisa malunga ne-600 km ukusuka emantla ukuya emazantsi kwaye malunga ne-1.175 km ukusuka empuma ukuya entshona. Ummandla wonke yi-436.400 km2. Ubunzulu bayo bubanzi kwaye zininzi iintlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana ezinokukhula kuwo. Ubunzulu bufikelela kwiimitha ezingama-2.2455 kunye namandla alo emanzini angama-547.000 km3 amanzi.

Yintoni igama loLwandle oluMnyama?

Amaza olwandle amnyama

Into oza ngayo apha kukufumanisa ukuba kutheni kwathiwa luLwandle oluMnyama kwasekuqaleni. Xa ubona uLwandle oluMnyama uyaqonda ukuba ayilolwandle lumnyama. Ke kutheni ibizwa njalo?

Ayaziwa ngokuthe ngqo ukuba kutheni bebiza olu lwandle ngegama lalo. Impucuko eyayihlala kwezi ndawo kumaxesha amandulo ayibizanga ngale ndlela, kodwa yenye into. Phakathi kwezona zizathu ezifanelekileyo esizifumanayo zokuba olu lwandle lubizwe ngeli gama sinombala omnyama. Olunye lweempawu ezenza ukuba olu lwandle lukhetheke kukuba, umbala walo omnyama, yenza kube nzima ukubona nantoni na kumgama omalunga neemitha ezili-100.

Isizathu sokuba sibe nalo mbala umnyama kungenxa yokuba kukho utyani obuninzi emazantsi nodaka olumnyama. Olu tyani londliwa yimixholo ephezulu yehydrogen sulfide, ukuze lonke udaka lufumane ngokuthe ngcembe le thoni imnyama. Amanzi awamnyama, kukubonakaliswa komhlaba kuphela okwenza ukuba ulwandle lonke lubonakale ngombala omnyama.

Kuyafana noLwandle Olubomvu. Isixa se-algae ebomvu kwi-substrate yaso senza umbala wolwandle ubonakale ubomvu ngaphandle. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba amanzi amnyama, iya kuba sisizathu sokukhathazeka. Ngokuchasene noko kucingelwayo (kuba uninzi lukubhidanisa noLwandle oluFileyo) kukuba olu lwandle alunasiqulatho setyuwa siphezulu. Ngokuchasene noko, ukuba umxholo wetyuwa ubuphezulu, imeko-bume iphela yesityalo eyinika umbala athiye igama ibingenakuphuhla.

Kolu lwandle sinokulufumana i-phytoplankton, iimbaza zediza, i-carp eqhelekileyo kunye neebbies ezijikelezayo, Eziluhlobo lweentlanzi. Ukutyeba kweentyatyambo nezilwanyana kuphezulu kakhulu kwaye kuyaziwa kakhulu ngabakhenkethi.

Ukubaluleka

ULwandle oluMnyama

Ngoku siza kubona ukubaluleka kolu lwandle kokubini ngendawo ekuyo kunye nomdla kwezoqoqosho onokuba nawo ebantwini. Kukho izinto ezahlukeneyo zangoku ezinokuthi zinikezwe kulo mmandla kwaye zezi zilandelayo. Ngokuba nezityalo nezilwanyana ezilungileyo, amazibuko angakhiwa ngokuloba. Oku kwenza ukuba urhwebo lukhule phakathi kwamazwe angqonge olu lwandle.

Navigation kunokwenzeka, kuba umphezulu wayo mkhulu kakhulu. Oku kwandisa ukhenketho kunye nemali evela kubo. Enkosi kolu khenketho, Ii-spas neehotele zonyusa inzuzo yazo ngokuba nemikhosi engaphezulu.

Kwelinye icala, ubutyebi bezilwanyana bukwabonisa umdla wokuloba kwezemidlalo. Nangona ingasasazekanga kangako, ikwasebenzisa ukuxhaphaza ezinye iihydrocarbon ezikhoyo, nokuba azikho zininzi. Ukusetyenziswa komkhosi owawunikwe ngenxa yesimo sayo se-geostrategic kulungile kwiimfazwe ezindala.

Ngaphandle kokusetyenziswa komkhosi, okunye ukusetyenziswa kuye kwanda emva kweMfazwe ebandayo. Oku kuvumela uqoqosho lwazo zonke iindawo ezingqongileyo ukuba lukhule.

Ungahamba ngendlela?

Umbuzo omnye abantu abaninzi abanawo xa besiya kuLwandle oluMnyama kukuba ingaba banokuhamba ngendlela okanye hayi. Impendulo nguewe. Nangona ineempawu ezahlukileyo ngokungathandabuzekiyo ezivela kwezinye iilwandle, inokuhamba ngenqanawa okoko nje amaphenyane alungiswe kakuhle kwaye kufuneka ahlolwe ngokufanelekileyo. Ngale ndlela, baya kuba nakho ukuziqhelanisa neempawu zolu lwandle.

Ukuhamba ngenqanawa kwezorhwebo kukwalukhetho olufanelekileyo lokuphucula uqoqosho kunye nokuloba ngokufumana okulotyiweyo. Ngexesha elifutshane, abakhenkethi kunye nabemi balo mmandla bayoyika kakhulu olu lwandle.

Kumaxesha athile adlulileyo ibingakwazi ukuhamba, kuba ngenxa yesayizi yayo encinci ibanda ebusika. Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi luyakunceda ufumane yonke into malunga noLwandle oluMnyama.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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