ULwandle iTiticaca

ichibi e peru

El Ichibi laseTiticaca inamanzi amaninzi agquma ummandla wasePeru naseBolivia, ikwadweliswe njengelona chibi liphakamileyo ehlabathini, inamanzi okuhamba ngenqanawa, alungele ukuloba, kwaye ineziqithi ezidadayo ezakhiwe phezu komhlaba, apho luluntu olupheleleyo. Ikwabizwa ngokuba luLwandle lweAndes.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga neLake Titicaca, imvelaphi yayo kunye neempawu zayo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ULwandle iTiticaca

IChibi iTiticaca lelinye lawona machibi anomtsalane ehlabathini yaye likumphakamo oziimitha ezingama-3.812 XNUMX. Ngenxa yobugqwirha bendawo ekuyo, inomdla wokuba amazwe amabini akuMbindi waseMelika abelana ngayo, ngenxa yoko I-56% yobuzwe basePeruvia kunye ne-44% yobuzwe baseBolivia.

Kodwa iimpawu zayo azipheli apho, kuba xa sithelekisa ukwandiswa kwayo kwezikwekhilomitha ezingama-8.560 204 namanye amachibi akummandla waseLatin America, iChibi iTiticaca lichibi lesibini ngobukhulu kulo mmandla mkhulu. Imilinganiselo yayo igubungela iikhilomitha ezingama-1.125 ukusuka kwelinye icala ukuya kwelinye, kwaye isiqwenga esiziikhilomitha ezili-XNUMX sonxweme olunqumla kumda walo, nto leyo ebangela ukuba libe lelona chibi liphakamileyo nelilelona lwandle kunokuhamba kulo ehlabathini.

Ukongeza, eli chibi lihle lineziqithi ezingaphezu kwama-42 ngaphakathi, eyona idumileyo kuyo yi-Isla del Sol, ebaluleke ngakumbi kunabanye ngenxa yokuba uBukhosi be-Inca buvela apho, ngoko ke bubonisa uthotho lweerelics ukuba ziyinxalenye yale nto. ubungqina bamandulo bempucuko bobukho. Namhlanje, abemi bayo ubukhulu becala ngabemi bomthonyama, yaye nangona benempembelelo ethile kwizithethe zale mihla, bagcine uninzi lwezithethe zabo zenzala yamaInca.

Imvelaphi yeChibi iTiticaca

indawo yechibi iTiticaca

Amandla eTectonic abangelwa yiMagma yoMhlaba, kwaye la mandla e-geothermal aguqulwa abe ngamandla omatshini abangela intshukumo yokuhambisa amacwecwe angaphantsi komhlaba enza amazwekazi ethu. Imvelaphi yeLake Titicaca kungenxa yala mandla etectonic abangela ukunyuka kweentaba ezisempuma nasentshona zoMbindi Merika weAndes. Amandla ale ntshukumo avelisa ukubunjwa kweeplateaus, ezizii-flat reliefs eziphakamileyo. Eli thafa liyaziwa ngegama leMeseta de Collao.

I-Collao Plateau, engaphezulu kwe-3.000 yeemitha zokuphakama, igcine amanzi enomkhenkce ngexesha le-Ice Age, ngoko ke iinkqubo zokubeka azizange zenzeke. Oku kwawuvumela ukuba ulondoloze ukumila nobunzulu bawo, ngoko xa kwabakho ixesha lomkhenkce, umkhenkce wanyibilika waza waba yiLake Titicaca, ngoku elaziwa ngokuba yiLake Titicaca.

Imozulu eyomileyo kunye neyomileyo ye-intra-caudal bases yasePeru naseBolivia nayo ichaphazela imijelo yazo encinci kunye necothayo, inegalelo ekuzinzeni kwalo manzi makhulu.

Uphononongo olubanzi lwenkqubo yechibi le-plateau luye lwabonisa ukuba iLake Titicaca sisiphumo sokuvela kwenkqubo yakudala kakhulu eyaqala kwi-Early Pleistocene epoch, i-25,58 ukuya kwi-781,000 kwiminyaka eyadlulayo, kwaye yatshintshela ekupheleni kwePliocene.

Utshintsho lwemozulu oluye lwenzeka ngala maxesha, ukususela kwimozulu eshushu ngokwentelekiso ukuya kwimozulu ebandayo nemanzi, kwabuchaphazela ngokungqalileyo ubukho nobukhulu beChibi iTiticaca namanye amachibi asezintabeni. Kwimeko efanayo, i-foothills ye-Cordillera iqhekezwe yimikhosi ye-tectonic enyakatho-esezantsi. Ekugqibeleni, kwi-Lower Pleistocene kwiminyaka eyi-2,9 yezigidi eyadlulayo, emva kokuvela kweLake Cabana nangaphambi kobukho beLake Baliwan, kwenziwa umsele owenziwe ngetectonic owawuza kuhlala liChibi elikhulu laseTiticaca.

Imozulu yeChibi iTiticaca

yampupata emxinwa

Imozulu yeChibi iTiticaca ixhomekeke ekuphakameni kwalo, ilichibi eliziimitha ezingaphezu kwama-3.000 25 ngaphezu komphakamo wolwandle, elinomahluko omkhulu wobushushu phakathi kwemini nobusuku. Amaqondo obushushu angafikelela kuma 0°C emini kunye no-XNUMX°C ebusuku.

Ubushushu obuqhelekileyo bonyaka beli chibi bumiselwe ukuba bube yi-13°C. Ngokwenxalenye yayo, ubushushu bomphezulu wamanzi buhluka phakathi kwe-11 kunye ne-25 ngokukaCelsius ngo-Agasti kwaye phakathi kwe-14 kunye ne-35 degrees Celsius ngoMatshi.

Kusenokuba ngumnqa ukuba kuloo mphakamo iqondo lobushushu ebudeni bemini lishushu ngolo hlobo, yaye oku kungenxa yokuba iChibi iTiticaca likwazi ukulawula ubushushu kuba lifunxa amandla elanga emini, okummandla ongqonge elo chibi. Ebusuku la mandla akhutshwa, ngoko ke iqondo lobushushu alibanda ngendlela ebesiyilindele.

I-Hydrology

Uninzi lwamanzi eLake Titicaca lulahlekelwa ngumphunga, into enzima kakhulu kwezinye iindawo apho iiflethi zetyuwa zenziwe, kuba izimbiwa echibini zifakwe kwimilambo kwaye zifakwe.

Kuqikelelwa ukuba yi-5% kuphela yamanzi echibi akhutshelwa emlanjeni IDesaguadero ngexesha lonyaka wamanzi aphakamileyo, aqukuqela eLake Poopó, elinetyuwa kuneLake Titicaca. Amanzi aphuma kwiLake Titicaca aphelela eSalar de Coisasa, apho amanzi amancinane akhawuleza abe ngumphunga.

Olunye uphawu lwe-hydrology yalo kukuba imilambo eyenza i-hydrological basin yayo ifutshane kakhulu, kunye ne-Ramis, i-Asangaro kunye ne-Calabaya imilambo ichongiwe njengeyona nto iphambili kwaye ide kakhulu, apho iRamis ide kakhulu kwi-283 km.

Ukuhamba kwala maqutyana kuphantsi kwaye akukho mgaqweni kwaye igalelo lawo limiselwa ziimvula zamaxesha onyaka, ezifumaneka phakathi kwenyanga yoMnga neyoKwindla, ngelixa imbalela okanye ukungabikho kwemvula kuphakathi kweenyanga zikaJuni noNovemba.

Imilambo yeLake Titicaca iphawulwa ngokuthambeka okuncinane kakhulu, nto leyo ebangela ukuba ukuziphatha kwawo kugxuphuleke, oko kukuthi, ukonakala, nto leyo ethetha ukuba akukho ziphithiphithi, oku kunempembelelo elubala, uhlobo lwezilwanyana nezityalo ezinxulumene nale nkqubo.

Amanzi eLake Titicaca abonakala ngokuba angamanzi anebraki kwaye akukho migaqo yokumisela, ukulawula nokuhlola umgangatho wamanzi. Enyanisweni, iisampulu eziye zaqhutywa zithe ngqo, oko kukuthi, umphezulu wechibi awukhange ufundwe ngalo mba. Nangona kunjalo, amanzi okwangoku e-Bay of Puno ayaziwa ukuba angcolisekile njengoko amanzi amdaka esixeko ekhutshelwa kuwo ngaphandle konyango.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngale nkcazelo unokufunda okungakumbi ngeChibi iTiticaca neempawu zalo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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