Owona mlambo mde eYurophu

imilambo iVolga

IYurophu inenethiwekhi ende yemilambo ehamba kakuhle kwaye enikezela ngamanzi kubemi. Inkqubo ye- Owona mlambo mde eYurophu Ivela kuMlambo iVolga. Uhamba ungena kumbindi weRussia kwaye ufikelela kumazantsi eRashiya, ukhuphela kuLwandle lweCaspian. Indawo egcina kuyo amanzi i-1.360.000 km2. Kucingwa ukuba ngowona mlambo mde eYurophu kwaye uneempawu ezizodwa.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga nomlambo omde eYurophu kunye neempawu zawo.

Iimpawu eziphambili

ivolga

Umlambo iVolga uvela kwiNtaba iValdai phakathi kweMoscow neSaint Petersburg kwaye ungena kuLwandle lweCaspian. Ayisiyomlambo umde nje kuphela eYurophu, kodwa ikwangowona mlambo mkhulu. Ngaba ziikhilomitha ezingama-3.690 ubude kwaye zinomndilili wokuhamba we-8.000 cubic metres ngomzuzwana.

Isitya sayo se-hydrological sigubungela ummandla we-1.350.000 yeekhilomitha, ezikumgangatho we-18 emhlabeni. Ikwangowona mlambo mkhulu eYurophu malunga nokukhutshwa kunye nomjelo. Yaziwa ngokubanzi njengomlambo wesizwe waseRussia. Ilizwe lakudala laseRussia, i-Russian khanate, lajikeleza uMlambo iVolga.

Ngokwembali, yindawo ebalulekileyo yokuhlangana kwempucuko yase-Eurasian. Lo mlambo uqukuqela phakathi kwamahlathi, amathafa asemahlathini kunye nengca eRashiya. Ezine kwezixeko ezilishumi ezinkulu eRashiya, kubandakanya ikomkhulu lelizwe iMoscow, zikwindawo yeVolga River. Amanye amadama amakhulu ehlabathini abekwe ecaleni koMlambo iVolga.

Yeyesitya sokuvalwa soLwandle lweCaspian kwaye ngowona mlambo mde ungena kwisitya esivaliweyo. Umlambo iVolga uphuma kwiiNtaba zeValdai kubude obuziimitha ezingama-225 kumantla ntshona eMoscow nakwiikhilomitha ezingama-320 kumazantsi mpuma eSaint Petersburg, kwaye uqukuqela usiya empuma ngeLake Strzh, eTver, eDubna, eRybinsk naseYaroslav Russia, eNizhny Novgorod naseKazan. Ukusuka apho ujikela emazantsi, ugqitha iidolophu ezimbalwa emva koko uphume uye kuLwandle lweCaspian ngezantsi kweAstrakhan. Iimitha ezingama-28 ngaphantsi komphakamo wolwandle.

Kwinqanaba layo elinobuchule, iyagoba ngaseDon. Kwindawo ephezulu yoMlambo iVolga kufutshane naseStaritsa, uMlambo iVolga ngo-1912 wawunemilambo emininzi, eyona ibaluleke kakhulu yayiyi-Kama River, i-Oka River, iVetluga River kunye neSura River. IVolga kunye neenzuzo zayo zenza inkqubo yoMlambo iVolga, ohamba phakathi kwendawo emalunga ne-1.350.000 yeekhilomitha ezikweleyona ndawo inabantu abaninzi eRashiya.

Umlomo weyona mlambo mde eYurophu

Owona mlambo mde eYurophu

Gcina ukhumbula ukuba owona mlambo mde eYurophu kufuneka ube nomlomo omkhulu. Umlomo wayo unobude obumalunga neekhilomitha ezili-160 kwaye ubandakanya ukuya kuma-500 amajelo kunye nemilambo emincinci. Elona chweba likhulu eYurophu kuphela kwendawo eRashiya apho unokufumana khona izilwanyana ezinjengee-flamingo, iingcongconi kunye neelotus. Ngenxa yamaqabaka aphezulu kule ndawo yaseRussia, ihlala iqabile kubude bayo yonke imilambo iinyanga ezintathu zonyaka. Iinyanga zobusika owona mlambo mde eYurophu ungumkhenkce.

Umlambo iVolga uhambisa amanzi ngakwintshona yeRashiya. Uninzi lwamadama alo amakhulu lubonelela ngonkcenkceshelo kunye namandla ombane. Ubude balo mlambo busetyenziselwa ukwandisa ukuveliswa kwamandla avuselelekayo xa kuthelekiswa nokuxhuma kwe-hydraulic enokwakhiwa kweyona mlambo mde eYurophu. Umsele waseMoscow, iVolga-Don Canal, kunye neVolga-Baltic yendlela ehamba emanzini edibanisa iMoscow noLwandle oluMhlophe, uLwandle lweBaltic, uLwandle lweCaspian, uLwandle lweAzov kunye noLwandle oluMnyama.

Iimpembelelo zokusingqongileyo owona mlambo mde eYurophu

Owona mlambo mde eYurophu ungcolisiwe

Amanqanaba aphezulu ongcoliseko lweekhemikhali awuchaphazele kakubi uMlambo iVolga kunye nendawo ahlala kuyo. Iintyatyambo kunye nezilwanyana zichaphazeleka sisenzo somntu kuyo yonke indlela. Ngokuqhubela phambili kwetekhnoloji kunye nexesha lezamashishini, zininzi izinto ezikhutshiweyo ezigcina zingcolise amanzi kwaye zibangele indalo kunye neendawo zokuhlala zeentlobo ezininzi zezityalo nezilwanyana zichaphazeleke.

Intlambo yomlambo inezinga eliphezulu lokuchuma kwaye ivelisa ingqolowa eninzi. Ikwanayo nemithombo yobutyebi etyebileyo. Umzi mveliso ophambili weoyile ugxile kwingingqi yoMlambo iVolga. Ezinye izixhobo zibandakanya irhasi yendalo, ityuwa kunye nezichumisi zepotash. IVolga Delta kunye noLwandle lweCaspian ngamabala okuloba. I-Astrakhan ebekwe kwithafa, sisazulu seshishini le-caviar.

Enye yeempembelelo zokusingqongileyo kweyona mlambo mde eYurophu kukuba ihlala isetyenziselwa ukuhamba ngenqanawa. Ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwamadama amakhulu ngexesha lokwenza umsebenzi, Umlambo iVolga uye wanda kancinci. Kubaluleke kakhulu kwezothutho kunye nokuhamba ngenqanawa eRashiya kuba onke amadama omlambo axhotyiselwe ukuvala iinqanawa kunye neenqanawa ezinobungakanani obukhulu. Zonke ezi nqanawa zinokuhamba ukusuka kuLwandle lweCaspian ukuya esiphelweni somlambo kweyona ndawo iphezulu.

Amanqanaba okuhamba kunye nongcoliseko

Ungcoliseko lowona mlambo mde eYurophu Ikhule kuphela ukusukela kwiminyaka yemizi-mveliso. Kwaqatshelwa ukuba ngo-2016, umda ovumelekileyo woxinaniso we-oyile kunye neziphumo zayo emanzini omlambo zanda xa kuthelekiswa nophando olufanayo olwaqhutywa ngo-2015. Ukwenza izinto zibe mbi ngakumbi, uxinzelelo lwezinto ezingcolisayo ngo-2016 zaqhubeka zisanda unyaka wonke.

Iimveliso ezinelona nani liphezulu lokungcoliseka okufumanekayo zibandakanya i-iron, i-mercury kunye ne-nickel. Kwasekuqaleni kuka-Agasti waloo nyaka, Inkulumbuso yase-Russia uMedvedev wakhupha ii-odolo ezifanelekileyo zokuphumeza isicwangciso sokucoca uMlambo iVolga. Ngokwengcaciso ebonelelwe liSebe lezeNdalo laseRussia, ukumiliselwa kwe Isicwangciso sokucoca umlambo iVolga siya kuxabisa malunga neebhiliyoni ezingama-34,4, okanye malunga neebhiliyoni ezingama-580 zeedola zaseMelika.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga nomlambo omde kakhulu eYurophu kunye neempawu zawo.


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