Mikhroneshiya

Mikhroneshiya

Ngokuqinisekileyo uvile ngoYehova Mikhroneshiya kwakunye nePolynesia neMelanesia. Ezi ziindawo ezikuLwandlekazi lwePasifiki ezihlala iziqithi ezinamazwe amanyeneyo. Kunokuthiwa iziqithi ziyinxalenye yelizwekazi elithetha ngezopolitiko. Ezi ziqithi zinomdla wezoqoqosho kunye nabakhenkethi.

Ngesi sizathu, siza kunikezela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into okufuneka uyazi malunga neMicronesia kunye neempawu zayo.

Yintoni iMicronesia

izixeko ezisesiqithini

IMicronesia ngummandla okuLwandlekazi lwePasifiki kunye nenxalenye yelizwekazi elenziwe ikakhulu ziziqithi kunye neziqithi ezininzi: iOceania. IMicronesia inamakhulukhulu eziqithi ezincinane ezisasazeke kuyo yonke intshona yoLwandlekazi lwePasifiki kwaye yahlulwe ngokwezopolitiko yaba yimimandla esi-8.. Bebonke abemi baseMicronesia bamalunga nama-350.000.

Kukho i-5 yamazwe azimeleyo, i-Palau, i-Federated States yaseMicronesia, i-Kiribati, i-Nauru kunye ne-Marshall Islands, kodwa kukho namazwe ama-3 axhomekeke e-United States, ngala: i-Northern Mariana Islands, i-Wake kunye ne-Guam. Ukulawulwa kwezi ziqithi kwatshintsha izandla izihlandlo ezininzi ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX nakwisiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane yama-XNUMX.

Kukho iilwimi ezininzi zasekuhlaleni eMicronesia, eziyinxalenye yolwimi lwaseOstriya, olwahlulahlulwe ngakumbi lwaba ziilwimi zaseOceanian nasePolynesia. Sekunjalo, isiNgesi siselulwimi oluthethwa ngokubanzi kuso sonke eso siqithi, yaye kwezinye iindawo, ubukhulu becala eGuam, kukho abemi abathetha iSpanish ngenxa yezizathu zonqulo.

IMicronesia ngomnye wemimandla emithathu yenkcubeko ephambili kule nxalenye yoLwandlekazi lwePasifiki, eminye emibini yiMelanesia nePolynesia.

Imbali ethile

izilwanyana zaseMicronesia

Igama leMicronesia lithetha “iziqithi ezincinane” ngesiGrike, kodwa umatiloshe ongumPhuthukezi uFerdinand Magellan, ummi wokuqala waseYurophu owafika kulo mmandla ngowe-1521, wazibiza ngokuba “ziziqithi zabaphangi,” mhlawumbi ngenxa yokuba zazihlaselwa ngabantu balapho. .Ngembeko kaKumkani uCarlos II waseSpain, ISpeyin yabhaptiza iziqithi ezinegama elithi Las Carolinas de kwangowe-1885 xa amaJamani eza kwaye azama ukunyanzelisa i-protectorate.

Urhulumente waseSpeyin waqhankqalaza waza wabhenela kwiVatican. ISivumelwano saseParis ngoDisemba 1898 sayiphelisa imfazwe phakathi kweSpeyin neUnited States. Madrid wathengisa iiCarolinas eJamani nge-25 yezigidi zeepesetas. Ngowe-1914, iJapan yathimba ezo ziqithi yaza yavumelana neUnited States ngecebo lokushenxisa umkhosi wonke lo mmandla, kodwa eso sivumelwano sawa phantsi ngowe-1935. Uhlaselo lwamaJapan kwiziko loMkhosi Womoya waseUnited States ePearl Harbor lwaqalisa eMicronesia.

Ngo-1947, iBhunga loKhuseleko leZizwe eziManyeneyo kunye norhulumente wase-US bagqiba ngekamva lezinto zaseJapan ezingaphesheya kwaye bavumelana ukuba iziqithi ziya kulawulwa yi-United States. NgoNovemba 1986, uMongameli uRonald Reagan wabhengeza ngokusemthethweni ukuphela kolawulo lwase-US eMicronesia. Ngo-1987, iZizwe eziManyeneyo zaseMicronesia zaseka ubudlelwane bezozakuzo kunye neMarshall Islands. Kunyaka kamva, iIsrael nePapua New Guinea zawugqala ummandla waseMicronesia njengeriphabliki ezintsha, zalandelwa yiJapan neTshayina ngowe-1989.

IJografi

ipalau kunye ne-micronesia

Kunye nePalau, amazwe aseMicronesia enza iZiqithi zeCaroline, ezimalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-800 kwimpuma yeePhilippines. Iqulathe iziqithi ezingama-607 ezisasazeke kwindawo eyi-2500 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha, indawo esebenzayo yelizwe yi-700 yeekhilomitha zeekhilomitha, apho ngaphezu kwesiqingatha sihambelana nesiqithi sasePohnpei. Lo mmandla uneentaba. Nangona indlela yokuna kwemvula iyancipha ukusuka empuma ukuya entshona, iziqithi zichatshazelwa yimvula enkulu. Ubushushu bonyaka bungama-27ºC. Ukudityaniswa kobushushu obuphezulu kunye nobushushu obungaguqukiyo buvelisa uhlaza oluchumileyo.

Isuka kwi-ikhweyitha ukuya kwi-140º yesibanzi somntla. Nangona inomphezulu wolwandle ngaphezu kokuphindwe kathathu kunowaseSpain (ngaphezu kwe-1.600.000 yeekhilomitha zesikwere), inomhlaba oziikhilomitha ezingama-700 kuphela, iikhilomitha ezingama-6.112 zonxweme kunye neekhilomitha ezingama-4.467 zamachibi.

UQoqosho lwaseMicronesia

Umsebenzi wezoqoqosho kuMazwe aManyeneyo aseMicronesia ubandakanya ubukhulu becala ukulima nokuloba. Urhulumente uqeshe isibini kwisithathu sabantu abadala. Urhulumente ufumana inkxaso-mali ubukhulu becala kuncedo lweCompact of Free Association olubonelelwa ngamandla oKhenketho lwase-US luthintelwe kukwahlukaniswa, ukunqongophala kwezixhobo ezifanelekileyo, kunye nokunqongophala kothutho lwangaphakathi lomoya kunye namanzi.

Amandla owiso-mthetho asezandleni zeCongress, inkqubo ye-unicameral enamalungu ali-14: Iisenenja ezi-4 kwixesha leminyaka emi-4 kunye namalungu ali-10 amele izithili zawo iminyaka emi-2.

I-Federated States yaseMicronesia izichaza “njengomanyano ngokuzithandela lwamazwe amane azimele geqe agcina ukuzimela geqe kokulawula imicimbi yawo yangaphakathi nemithombo yawo, kuquka unxibelelwano lwangaphandle nokungena kwizivumelwano zokunxulumana namazwe esithathu.” Umceli mngeni omkhulu ojongene ne-Federated States yaseMicronesia kuphuhliso loqoqosho lwe-archipelago kunye nokuzinza kwelizwe.

Elona qumrhu liphezulu leenkundla yiNkundla ePhakamileyo yaMazwe aManyeneyo aseMicronesia, amalungu ayo anyulwe nguMongameli ukwamkelwa kwe-2/3 yeCongress. Abagwebi banezigwebo zobomi bonke.

Thumela ngaphandle

ISpeyin neMicronesia azinabudlelwane obuzinzileyo borhwebo. Oku kuguqulela ekuhambeni okungaguquguqukiyo unyaka wonke, ukongeza urhwebo lulonke olungaphezulu nje kwe-350.000 ye-euro ngo-2018. Oku kubangela ibhalansi elungileyo yezorhwebo ye-341.530 ye-euro kunye nomlinganiselo wokugubungela i-5,141%.

I-Micronesia imele malunga ne-0% (0,0002%) yokuthunyelwa ngaphandle kweSpeyin. Oku kunciphisa ukubaluleka kwelizwe ngokorhwebo lwamazwe amabini. Liqabane lorhwebo lama-207 eSpain ngokwenqanaba lokuthumela ngaphandle.

Urhwebo kunye neMicronesia luye lwancitshiswa kunyaka odlulileyo we-2018. Nangona ubukho bendlela efanelekileyo kwiminyaka edlulileyo, urhwebo kunye neMicronesia yehliswe ngama-56% ngowama-2018, ukunciphisa ukusuka kwi-650.000 euro ukuya kwi-348.300 ye-euro kunyaka odlulileyo.

Urhwebo lubandezeleka ngenxa yempembelelo ye-saw spikes, ehlupheka ngenxa yokungazinzi okukhulu. Uthungelwano lonyaka lokuthunyelwa kwempahla kumazwe angaphandle luveliswa ngokweemfuno ezithile zelizwe kwaye ke ngoko kukho ukwanda okunamandla kunye nokuncipha. Ukongeza, umthamo ophantsi wezinto ezithunyelwa ngaphandle unyusa esi siphumo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga neMicronesia kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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