Kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama abantu basetyhini?

kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama abasetyhini

Kuze kube yiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo kwakuyinto eqhelekileyo ukubhaptiza iinkanyamba ngamagama abangcwele belo xesha. Yiyo loo nto uSanta Ana wavela ePuerto Rico ngoJulayi 26, 1825 naseSan Felipe ngoSeptemba 13, 1928. NgoSeptemba 1834, inkanyamba uPadre Ruiz phezu kweDominican Republic yabangelwa ngumfundisi, nangona kunjalo, ezi ziganeko zemozulu zaqalisa ukuthwaxa. amagama abantu. abantu abaninzi bayazibuza Kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama abantu basetyhini?

Ngoko ke, kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela ukuba kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama amabhinqa.

Ngaba iinkanyamba zibizwa emva kokubulawa kwabasetyhini?

imimoya enamandla

Ngokutsho kolu shicilelo, amagama amabhinqa aye athandwa ngakumbi phakathi kwezazi zezulu zaseMerika kwiMfazwe Yehlabathi II, yaye isiko lokuthiya iinkanyamba ngamagama amabhinqa lamkelwa ngokusemthethweni eUnited States ngowe-1953. ingqumbo yabasetyhini abaninzi, ecatshukiswa kukunxulumana ngokungekho ngqiqweni nentlekele. Iphulo likaBolton kunye namanye amatsha ntliziyo ekugqibeleni laqinisekisa abasemagunyeni base-US ukuba baqale ukusebenzisa amagama amadoda kwakhona ngo-1979.

Ngaphandle kwayo yonke intetho yokusetyenziswa kwamagama abasetyhini ukubiza iziganeko ezinjalo, ngo-2014 iqela labaphandi base-US bafikelela kwisigqibo sokuba iinkanyamba ezibizwa ngokuba ngabasetyhini zibulala kakhulu kunezaqhwithi zamadoda, zibangela ukufa kwabantu abaninzi kuba bejonge ngenxa yezoyikiso. Incinci, ngoko kufuneka uthathe amanyathelo okhuseleko ambalwa.

Kuhlolisiso olwenziwa kumashumi amathandathu eminyaka okufa kwenkanyamba eUnited States kwafunyaniswa ukuba izaqhwithi ezithiywe ngamagama amabhinqa zabulala abantu abaphantse baphindeke kabini. Ababhali bacebisa ukutshintsha indlela iinkanyamba ezibizwa ngayo ukunqanda ulwabelana ngesondo olungekho zingqondweni oluthi ekugqibeleni luchaphazele amanqanaba okulungela kwabantu. Sekunjalo, iZiko leNkanyamba likaZwelonke lathi abantu bafanele baxhalabe malunga nesisongelo ngasinye esibangelwa siqhwithi, nokuba sibiza uSam okanye uSamantha.

Kodwa ngubani ogqibayo ukuba yintoni na inkanyamba? Kutheni bethiywa ngabantu? Ukusetyenziswa kwamagama afanelekileyo endaweni yamanani okanye amagama obugcisa kujoliswe ukuphepha ukudideka kunye nokuququzelela ukusasazwa kwezilumkiso. Uluhlu lwegama leNkanyamba yeTropiki yeAtlantiki lwenziwe yiZiko leNkanyamba yeSizwe (NHC) kwi-1953 kwaye isetyenziswe njengoluhlu oluqhelekileyo lwehlabathi lonke.

Ezi zintlu zigcinwa kwaye zihlaziywa nguMbutho weHlabathi weMeteorological (WMO), i-arhente yeZizwe eziManyeneyo ezinze eGeneva, eSwitzerland. Ngale ndlela, iinkanyamba zonyaka ngamnye zidweliswe ngokwealfabhethi, ngaphandle konobumba u-Q, u-U, XY, no-Z, abanamagama atshintshanayo amadoda nabafazi. Ummandla ngamnye unegama elahlukileyo lesaqhwithi. Izintlu ezibiziweyo ngesiNgesi, iSpanish kunye nesiFrentshi zifunyanwa rhoqo emva kweminyaka emithandathu. Ngoko umzekelo uluhlu olusetyenziswe ngo-2010 lukwasetyenziswa ngo-2016.

Iikomiti zengingqi ze-WMO zidibana rhoqo ngonyaka ukuze zenze isigqibo malunga nokuba ngawaphi amagama esiphango kunyaka ophelileyo ekufuneka "akhenkcezwe" ngenxa yeziphumo ezibi kakhulu. Umzekelo yiNkanyamba uKatrina, eyabulala abantu abangaphezu kwama-2005 2.000 eNew Orleans (eUnited States) ngowama-2011, egama layo lingekasetyenziswa kwakhona. Ngo-XNUMX uKatia wangena njengebambela.

Kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama abantu basetyhini?

ukubunjwa kwenkanyamba

U-Koji Kuroiwa, intloko ye-WMO Tropical Cyclone Programme, uxelele i-BBC ukuba isenzo sokuthiya iinkanyamba emva kwabasetyhini sasixhaphakile phakathi kwe-meteorologists yase-US ngexesha leMfazwe Yehlabathi II. “Bakhetha ukukhetha igama lesithandwa sabo, umfazi okanye umama. Ngelo xesha, inkoliso yayithwala amagama amabhinqa. Lo mkhwa waba yinto eqhelekileyo ngo-1953, kodwa amagama amadoda nawo adityaniswa ngeminyaka yoo-1970 ukunqanda ukungalingani ngokwesini.

Ngo-2014, uphando lweYunivesithi yase-Illinois lubonise ukuba iinkanyamba ezithiywe ngabasetyhini zabulala abantu abaninzi kuneenkanyamba ezithiywe ngamadoda. Isizathu? Uphando lubonisa ukuba ngenxa yokuba abafazi babonwa njengabancinci "abanzulu," abakulungele ukujongana nabo.

Izazinzulu zihlalutye inani lokufa kwezitshingitshane e-US ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-60 kwaye zagqiba kwelokuba izaqhwithi ezithiywe ngabasetyhini zabulala phantse kabini. Emva kokuva ezi ziphumo, iNational Hurricane Centre igxininise ukuba abantu bafanele banikele ingqalelo kwisongelo esibangelwa yisiphango ngasinye, nokuba sibiza uSam okanye uSamantha.

Ngaphambili, ukubiza iinkanyamba ingcwele yemini esakhutshwa ngayo isaqhwithi yasetyenziswa. Ngokomzekelo, iNkanyamba yaseSanta Ana yahlasela iPuerto Rico ngoJulayi 1825.

Isazi ngemozulu saseBritani uClement Wragge waba ngowokuqala ukubiza inkanyamba. Ngasekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-1953, izaqhwithi zaqalisa ukuthiywa ngamagama amabhinqa. IUnited States ekugqibeleni yayiza kwamkela ngokusesikweni olu qheliselo ngowe-XNUMX.

Le yayiyimeko kwakudala ngaphambi kokuba i-American amalungelo oluntu kunye nomlweli wabasetyhini uRoxcy Bolton (1926-2017) abe nobuganga bokucela umngeni kwi-NOAA. Usungule iphulo lokutshintsha indlela abathiywa ngayo iinkanyamba ukuze kuqukwe namagama amadoda. Ngenxa yoko, waba ubuso beqela elikhulu labasetyhini aba akhalaza ngelithi amagama amabhinqa anxulunyaniswa neentlekele zemvelo.

Kwiminyaka kamva, izazi ngemozulu zaseMelika zawuyeka lo mkhwa. Ke nanko kufika uBob, inkanyamba yesibini ka-1979, ekugqibeleni enegama lobudoda.

Ubhaptizo lwenkanyamba namhlanje

Kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama abantu basetyhini?

Namhlanje, kwiinkanyamba zeAtlantiki, isaqhwithi ngasinye sinoluhlu lwamagama lweminyaka emithandathu. Oko kukuthi, uluhlu luphindaphindwa rhoqo emva kweminyaka esixhenxe. Ekuphela kwexesha etshintshileyo kukuba isaqhwithi siyingozi kakhulu okanye siyonakalisa kakhulu ukusetyenziswa kwixesha elizayo igama lakhe alifanelekanga ngenxa yezizathu ezicacileyo zovakalelo. Uluhlu ngalunye lunamagama angama-21 ngokulandelelana kwealfabhethi. Ukuba iinkanyamba ezingaphezu kwama-21 zirekhodwa ngexesha lonyaka, kusetyenziswa oonobumba bealfabhethi yesiGrike.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nokuba kutheni iinkanyamba zinamagama amabhinqa


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