Isilingi yamafu

Isilingi yamafu

Ukuba asiqhelananga ngokupheleleyo nolwimi lobugcisa olusetyenziswa kwimeteorology, ngakumbi ulwimi lobugcisa olusetyenziswa ngokukodwa kwi-aeronautics, sinokubhidanisa ngokulula imiphezulu yamafu kunye Isilingi yamafu. Oko kukuthi, iinxalenye zazo zibekwe kwiindawo eziphakamileyo. Nangona kunjalo, isilingi ekhankanywe ngasentla ibhekisa kweyona ndawo ichaseneyo: ezantsi kwamafu njengoko kubonwa kumphezulu woMhlaba. Ukwazi ukuba ziphakame kangakanani iisilingi kunye namafu nangaliphi na ixesha kunomdla kakhulu ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi.

Ngenxa yesi sizathu, siza kunikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela yonke into oyifunayo ukuyazi malunga nesilingi yefu, zeziphi iimpawu zayo kunye luncedo.

Ilifu lenzeka njani

iintlobo zamafu

Ngaphambi kokuba siqale ukuchaza iisilingi zamafu, kufuneka sichaze indlela ezakha ngayo. Ukuba kukho amafu esibhakabhakeni, kufuneka kubekho ukupholisa umoya. "Umjikelo" uqala ngelanga. Njengoko imitha yelanga ifudumeza umphezulu woMhlaba, ikwafudumeza umoya oyingqongileyo. Umoya ofudumeleyo uyancipha ukuxinana, ngoko uye uthande ukuphakama kwaye uthatyathelwe indawo ngumoya opholileyo, oxineneyo.. Njengoko i-altitude ikhula, iimitha zobushushu ezisingqongileyo zibangela ukuba amaqondo obushushu ehle. Ngoko ke, umoya uyaphola.

Xa ifika kumaleko opholileyo womoya, ijika ibe ngumphunga wamanzi. Lo mphunga wamanzi awubonakali ngeliso lenyama kuba wenziwe ngamathontsi amanzi kunye namasuntswana omkhenkce. La masuntswana amancinane kangangokuba anokubanjwa emoyeni ngokuqukuqela okuthe nkqo komoya.

Umahluko phakathi kokubunjwa kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zamafu kungenxa yobushushu bobushushu. Amanye amafu enziwa kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu kwaye amanye kumaqondo obushushu asezantsi. Iqondo eliphantsi lokushisa lokubunjwa, "ilifu" liya kuba lilifu.. Kukwakho nezinye iindidi zamafu ezivelisa imvula kwaye ezinye zingavelisi. Ukuba iqondo lobushushu liphantsi kakhulu, ilifu elenzayo liya kuba neekristale zomkhenkce.

Enye into echaphazela ukwenziwa kwamafu kukuhamba komoya. Amafu, adalwe xa umoya umile, athanda ukubonakala ngokwemigangatho okanye ukumila. Kwelinye icala, ezo zinemisinga enamandla ethe nkqo eyenziwe phakathi komoya okanye umoya zibonelela ngophuhliso olukhulu oluthe nkqo. Ngokubanzi, le yokugqibela yimbangela yemvula kunye nezivunguvungu.

ubungqingqwa bamafu

isibhakabhaka esinamafu

Ubukhulu belifu, esinokulichaza njengomahluko phakathi kobude bomphezulu kunye nomzantsi walo, bungaguquguquka kakhulu, ngaphandle kokuba usasazo lwalo oluthe nkqo nalo luyahluka kakhulu.

Sinokubona kumaleko amnyama we-lead grey nimbus, ukuba ifikelela kubunzima beemitha ezingama-5.000 kwaye ithatha uninzi lwetroposphere ephakathi nasezantsi, ukuya kumaleko acekethekileyo amafu e<em>cirrus, angekho ngaphezu kweemitha ezingama-500 ububanzi, abekwe kumphakamo ongasentla, awela ilifu elimangalisayo eliyicumulonimbus (i-thundercloud), elimalunga neemitha ezili-10.000 XNUMX ubukhulu, elithi nkqo ukuya kutsho phantse kumhlaba wonke ophantsi.

Isilingi yamafu kwisikhululo seenqwelomoya

uphahla lwamafu aphezulu

Ulwazi malunga neemeko zemozulu eziqwalaselweyo kunye noqikelelo lwemozulu kwizikhululo zeenqwelomoya zibalulekile ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukunduluka okukhuselekileyo nokumisa. Abaqhubi beenqwelo-moya banokufikelela kwiingxelo ezinekhowudi ezibizwa ngokuba yi-METAR (iimeko eziqwalaselweyo) kunye ne-TAF [okanye i-TAFOR] (iimeko ezilindelekileyo). Eyokuqala ihlaziywa yonke iyure okanye isiqingatha seyure (kuxhomekeke kwisikhululo seenqwelomoya okanye isiseko somoya), ngelixa i eyesibini ihlaziywa rhoqo ngamaxesha amathandathu (amaxesha ama-4 ngosuku). Zombini ziquka iibhloko ezahlukeneyo zealphanumeric, ezinye zazo ezichaza ugutyulo lwamafu (inxalenye yesibhakabhaka egqunywe sisibhozo okanye sesibhozo) kunye neencochoyi zamafu.

Kwiingxelo zemozulu zesikhululo seenqwelomoya, ukuba namafu okudlulileyo kubhalwe njenge-FEW, SCT, BKN, okanye i-OVC. Ivela kwiingxelo ZIMBALWA xa amafu egqagqene kwaye ehlala kuphela i-oktas eyi-1-2, ehambelana nesibhakabhaka esicacileyo. Ukuba sine-oktas ezi-3 okanye ezi-4, siya kuba ne-SCT (i-scatter), oko kukuthi, ilifu elichithakeleyo. Inqanaba elilandelayo yi-BKN (eyaphukileyo), esiyichonga njengesibhakabhaka esinamafu phakathi kwe-5 kunye ne-7 oktas, kwaye ekugqibeleni ibe yimini yamafu, ebhalwe njenge-OVC (amafu), kunye namafu angama-8 oktas.

Umphezulu welifu, ngokwenkcazo, bubude besiseko selifu esisezantsi ngaphantsi kwe-20.000 yeenyawo (malunga ne-6.000 yeemitha) kwaye igubungela ngaphezu kwesiqingatha sesibhakabhaka (> 4 oktas). Ukuba imfuno yokugqibela (i-BKN okanye i-OVC) ifezekisiwe, idatha enxulumene nesiseko selifu sesikhululo seenqwelo-moya iya kunikwa kwingxelo.

Imixholo ye-METAR (idatha yokujonga) ibonelelwa zizixhobo ezibizwa ngokuba zii-nephobasimeters (i-ceilometers ngesiNgesi, ephuma kwigama elithi "silingi"), ekwaziwa ngokuba zii-nephobasimeters, okanye "i-cloudpiercers" ngokweyona migaqo isetyenziswayo. Eyona nto ixhaphakileyo isekelwe kubuchwephesha belaser. Ngokukhupha i-pulses yokukhanya kwe-monochromatic phezulu kunye nokufumana imitha ebonakalisiweyo evela kumafu asondele emhlabeni, inokuqikelela ngokuchanekileyo ukuphakama kwee-toptops zamafu.

phezulu kwesaqhwithi

Ngexesha lokuhamba ngenqanawa, xa inqwelomoya ibhabha kwi-troposphere ephezulu, abaqhubi beenqwelomoya kufuneka banike ingqwalasela ekhethekileyo kwizaqhwithi ezisendleleni, kuba uphuhliso olukhulu oluthe nkqo olufikelela kumafu e-cumulonimbus lubanyanzela ukuba babaphephe kwaye baphephe ukusondela kubo. Qaphela ukuba kwezi meko, ukubhabha phezu kwamafu esitshi kuba yihambo eyingozi emele iphetshwe ukuze kukhuseleke inqwelo-moya. Ulwazi lwe-radar oluqhutywe yinqwelo-moya lubonelela ngendawo yesiseko sesiphango esinxulumene nenqwelomoya, evumela umqhubi ukuba atshintshe indlela xa kuyimfuneko.

Ukufumana uluvo olurhabaxa lomphakamo weencopho zala mafu amakhulu e-cumulonimbus, kusetyenziswa iirada zemozulu ezisekwe emhlabeni ezikwaziyo ukuvelisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zemifanekiso. Iimveliso ezibonelelwa yinethiwekhi ye-AEMET ziquka ukubonakalisa, imvula eqokelelweyo (imvula eqikelelweyo kwiiyure ze-6 zokugqibela) kunye ne-ecotops (ii-echotops, ezibhalwe ekuqaleni ngesiNgesi).

Le yokugqibela imele ubude obuphezulu besalamane (kwiikhilomitha) sokubuyiswa kwerada okanye isignali yokubuya, ngokusekwe kumda wokubonisa osetyenziswa njengesalathiso, ngokuqhelekileyo ilungiswe kwi-12 dBZ (decibel Z), kuba kungekho mvula ngaphantsi kwayo. Kubalulekile ukwenza kucace ukuba asinakukwazi ngqo ukuchonga indawo ephezulu ye-ecoregion kunye nesiphango, ngaphandle koqikelelo lokuqala, kodwa kwindawo ephezulu apho kunokwenzeka isichotho.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nesilingi yefu kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
  5. Ukugcinwa kweenkcukacha
  6. Amalungelo: Ngalo naliphi na ixesha unganciphisa, uphinde uphinde ucime ulwazi lwakho.