Isikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe

oosomajukujuku

La Isikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwel (ISS) liziko lophando kunye nelebhu yokutolika ngokwesithuba apho imibutho yamazwe ngamazwe eliqela isebenzisana kwaye isebenze. Abalawuli baseMelika, isiRashiya, iYurophu, iJapan kunye ne-arhente yendawo yaseCanada, kodwa idibanisa abasebenzi bezizwe ezahlukeneyo kunye neengcali ukulawula nokusebenza kwe-hardware enikeziweyo.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ekufuneka uyazi malunga neSikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe kunye nokubaluleka kwaso.

Isikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe

isikhululo sesathelayithi

Aba basebenzi bajongana nemisebenzi enzima yokusebenza amaziko okwakha, amaziko okusebenza kunye nokuqaliswa kwenkxaso, sebenzisa izithuthi ezininzi zokuqaliswa, qhuba uphando, kwaye ulungelelanise itekhnoloji kunye nezibonelelo zonxibelelwano.

INdibano yeSikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe yaqala ngokuphehlelelwa kwemodyuli yolawulo yaseRashiya iZarya ngoNovemba 20, 1998, edityaniswe ne-US-built Unity hub kwinyanga kamva, kodwa iye yahlengahlengiswa ngokuqhubekayo kwaye yandiswa njengoko kufuneka. Phakathi kwe-2000, imodyuli ye-Zvezda eyenziwe eRashiya yongezwa, kwaye ngoNovemba waloo nyaka, iqela lokuqala labahlali lafika, eliquka injineli ye-aerospace yaseMelika uWilliam Shepard kunye ne-Russian mechanical engineer Sergey Krikalev kunye noColonel Yurigi Cenko. Umkhosi womoya waseRashiya. Ukusukela ngoko, isikhululo sasemajukujukwini sixakekile.

Esi sesona sikhululo sasemajukujukwini sikhulu esakha sakhiwa kwaye sisaqhubeka sidityaniswa kwi-orbit. Xa olu lwando luphela, iya kuba yinto yesithathu eqaqambileyo esibhakabhakeni emva kweLanga neNyanga.

Ukususela kunyaka 2000, oosomajukujuku abafika kwiSikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe baye bajikeleza malunga neenyanga ezintandathu. Bafika ngesiphekepheke esivela eUnited States naseRashiya, kunye nezinto zokusinda. I-Soyuz kunye neNkqubela ziphakathi kwezona nqanawa zisetyenziswa kakhulu zaseRashiya kwezi njongo.

Amacandelo eSikhululo saMajukujuku saMazwe ngaMazwe

Isikhululo sasemajukujukwini

Amalungu esikhululo sasemajukujukwini akukho lula ukuwenza. Inikwe amandla ngamapaneli elanga kwaye ipholile yisekethe echitha ukushisa kwiimodyuli, iindawo apho abasebenzi bahlala khona kwaye basebenze. Emini, iqondo lobushushu lifikelela kuma-200ºC, ngelixa ebusuku lihla liye kutsho kuma-200ºC. Kule nto, iqondo lokushisa kufuneka lilawulwe ngokufanelekileyo.

I-trusses isetyenziselwa ukuxhasa iipaneli zelanga kunye ne-heat sinks, kwaye iimodyuli ezibunjwe njengeengqayi okanye iisphere zixhunywe "ngama-nodes." Ezinye zeemodyuli eziphambili ziyiZarya, Unity, Zvezda kunye neSolar Array.

Ii-arhente zasemajukujukwini ezininzi ziye zayila iingalo zerobhothi ukuze ziqhube kwaye zihambise imithwalo emincinci, kunye nokuhlola, ukufaka, kunye nokutshintsha iiphaneli zelanga. Eyona idumileyo sisitishi somnxeba sesikhululo somnxeba esaphuhliswa liqela laseKhanada, ebalaseleyo kumlinganiselo wayo oziimitha ezili-17 ubude. Inamalungu asi-7 eemoto kwaye iyakwazi ukuthwala imithwalo enzima kunesiqhelo njengengalo yomntu (igxalaba, ingqiniba, isihlahla kunye neminwe).

Iintsimbi ezisetyenziswa kulo lonke ulwakhiwo lwesikhululo sasemajukujukwini ziyamelana nokuhlwa, ubushushu kunye nemitha yelanga, ngoko ke azikho ntsha ngokupheleleyo kwaye azikhuphi iigesi eziyityhefu xa zidibana nezinto zasesithubeni.

Umphandle wesikhululo sasemajukujukwini unokhuseleko olukhethekileyo ngokuchasene nokungqubana okuncinci kwezinto zasesithubeni, ezifana ne-micrometeorites kunye nobutyobo. I-Micrometeorites ngamatye amancinci, ngokuqhelekileyo angaphantsi kwegram, abonakala engenabungozi. Nangona kunjalo, ngenxa yesantya sabo, banokonakalisa kakhulu izakhiwo ngaphandle kolu khuseleko. Ngokunjalo, iifestile zinokhuseleko lokunqanda ukothuka njengoko zenziwe ngamanqanaba ama-4 eglasi engqindilili ye-3 cm.

Xa igqityiwe, i-ISS iya kuba nobunzima obuziikhilogram ezingama-420.000 kunye nobude obuziimitha ezingama-74.

Iphi?

ubomi kwisikhululo samazwe ngamazwe

Iziko lophando likwi-370-460 yeekhilomitha ngaphezu komphezulu (malunga nomgama phakathi kweWashington DC neNew York) kwaye uhamba ngesantya esimangalisayo se-27.600 km / h. Oku kuthetha ukuba isikhululo sasemajukujukwini sijikeleza uMhlaba rhoqo emva kwemizuzu engama-90-92, ngoko ke abasebenzi bafumana amava okuphuma nokutshona kwelanga ali-16 ngosuku.

Isikhululo sasemajukujukwini sijikeleza uMhlaba ngokuthambekela kweedigri ezingama-51,6., nto leyo evumela ukuba igubungele ukuya kutsho kuma-90 ekhulwini eendawo ezihlala abantu. Ngenxa yokuba ubude bayo abukho phezulu kakhulu, inokubonwa phantsi ngeliso lenyama ngelo xesha. Kwiwebhu http://m.esa.int ungalandela indlela yayo ngexesha lokwenyani ukubona ukuba ikufutshane na kwindawo yethu. Rhoqo ngeentsuku ezi-3 idlula kwindawo enye.

ubomi besikhululo

Ukuqinisekisa abasebenzi ukusuka ekuqaleni ukuya ekugqibeleni ayingomsebenzi olula njengoko kukho imingcipheko emininzi ukusuka kuhambo lwasemajukujukwini ukuya kwiimeko zempilo emva kokuchitha ixesha esithubeni. Nangona kunjalo, utshintsho lunokunceda oosomajukujuku baphephe imingcipheko enkulu.

Umzekelo, ukungabikho komxhuzulane kuchaphazela imisipha yomntu, amathambo kunye nenkqubo yokujikeleza kwegazi, isizathu sokuba amalungu abasebenzi kufuneka azilolonge iiyure ezi-2 ngosuku. Ukuzivocavoca kubandakanya ukunyakaza kwemilenze yebhayisikili, i-bench press-like arm movements, kunye ne-deadlifts, i-squats kunye nokunye. Izixhobo ezisetyenzisiweyo zilungelelaniswe ngokupheleleyo kwiimeko zendawo, kuba kufuneka kukhunjulwe ukuba ubunzima kwindawo buhluke kubunzima emhlabeni.

Kuthatha iintsuku ezimbalwa ukuziqhelanisa ukuze ulale kamnandi. Oku kubalulekile ukuze amalungu abasebenzi banikwe ingqwalasela efanelekileyo ekusebenzeni nasekuthatheni izigqibo. Oosomajukujuku badla ngokulala phakathi kweyure ezintandathu nezintandathu ezinesiqingatha ngokomndilili, kwaye baya kubotshelelwa kwinto engavuthiyo.

Oosomajukujuku baxukuxe amazinyo, bahlambe iinwele zabo kwaye baye kwigumbi lokuhlambela njengabanye abantu, kodwa akukho lula njengasekhaya. Ucoceko olulungileyo lwamazinyo luqala ngokuxutyushwa rhoqo, kodwa ngenxa yokuba akukho sinki, intsalela ayinakutshicelwa, ngoko abanye abantu bakhetha ukuyiginya okanye ukuyilahla ngetawuli. Iitawuli zihlala zitshintshwa kwaye zenziwe ngezinto ezincinci kodwa ezifunxayo.

Ishampu abazisebenzisayo azifuni kuhlanjwa, kwaye amanzi abawasebenzisela umzimba acocwa ngetawuli kuba ukungabikho komxhuzulane kubangela ukuba ulwelo lunamathele esikhumbeni ngendlela yamaqamza endaweni yokuwela phantsi. Ukuhlangabezana neemfuno zabo zomzimba, basebenzisa ifanitshala ekhethekileyo eqhagamshelwe kwifeni yokufunxa.

Ukutya abakulandelayo kukhethekile, abakonwabeli njengaseMhlabeni, kuba xa kunjalo inkalakahla iba ncinane, kwaye ipakishwe ngenye indlela.

Ayingomsebenzi wonke kwisikhululo sasemajukujukwini. Bambalwa abantu abaziyo ukuba oosomajukujuku banemisebenzi ethile yokuthintela isithukuthezi kunye noxinzelelo. Mhlawumbi ukujonga ngefestile kwaye ujonge eMhlabeni kwanele, njengoko abantu abambalwa benza, kodwa iinyanga ezi-6 zide. Banokubukela iimuvi, baphulaphule umculo, bafunde, badlale amakhadi kwaye banxibelelane nabantu ababathandayo. Ulawulo lwengqondo olufunekayo ukusebenza ixesha elide kwisikhululo sasemajukujukwini ngomnye umba onokwenzeka koosomajukujuku.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nesikhululo samazwe ngamazwe kunye neempawu zaso.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Injongo yedatha: Ulawulo lwe-SPAM, ulawulo lwezimvo.
  3. Umthetho: Imvume yakho
  4. Unxibelelwano lwedatha: Idatha ayizukuhanjiswa kubantu besithathu ngaphandle koxanduva lomthetho.
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