Isikali seRichter

imilinganiselo yesikali esityebileyo

Ngokuqinisekileyo ngaphezu kwesihlandlo esinye baye beva malunga nobukhulu beenyikima kunye nokubaluleka kwazo ukuba bakwazi ukuhlola umonakalo eziwubangelayo. Ukwenza oku, sebenzisa ifayile Isikali seRichter. Ngumlinganiselo oquka bonke ubunzulu beenyikima kwaye usetyenziswa kwihlabathi liphela.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga nesikali seRichter, owayengumdali walo, iimpawu kunye nokubaluleka.

Yintoni isikali sikaRichter?

iinyikima

I-seismic Richter scale, eyaziwa njenge-Richter scale okanye i-ML scale, sisikali se-logarithmic esilinganisa ubungakanani bamandla akhutshiweyo kumandlalo omhlaba ngexesha lenyikima okanye inyikima, ethiywe ngesazi ngenyikima saseMelika uCharles M. Francis Richter (1900-1985) ), owayengumqambi wayo kunye noBeno Gutenberg waseJamani (1889-1960).

Isikali seRichter sisetyenziswa kwihlabathi jikelele ukulinganisa amandla eenyikima. ezinobukhulu obususela kwi-2,0 ukuya kwi-6,9, ezenzeka phakathi kwe-0 kunye ne-400 yeekhilomitha ubunzulu.

Xa ixabiso lenyikima liyi-7.0 amanqaku okanye ngaphezulu, indlela ye-Richter ayisasetyenziswa, kodwa i-seismic scale of moment magnitude (Mw) isetyenziswa, echanekileyo ngakumbi kwiirekhodi ezigqithisileyo, kwaye yacetywa nguThomas Hanks kunye noHiroo Kanamori. ngowe-1979. Ngoko ke, akunakubakho zinyikima zomhlaba ezingaphezu kwe-6,9 kwisikali sikaRichter.

Esi sikali sicingelwa ukuba yindlela yokwahlula iinyikima zomhlaba ezincinci kwiinyikima zemihla ngemihla kunye neenyikima ezinkulu ezivela kwiinyikima ezingaqhelekanga. Kule nto, i-Wood-Anderson torsional seismometer yasetyenziswa kwaye uvavanyo lokuqala lwenziwa kwindawo ethile esemazantsi eCalifornia (USA).

Ngaphandle kobungqina bokusebenziseka kunye nokuthandwa kwayo, isikali seRichter sinengxaki yokuba nzima ukunxulumana neempawu ezibonakalayo zomthombo wenyikima. Kubukhulu obusondeleyo kwi-8,3-8,5, ibonisa umphumo wokuzalisa, okwenza ukuba ungachanekanga. Kwakhona, ukunqunyulwa ukuba nokwenzeka kokuqulunqa i-seismograph yayo, ifuna ukwandiswa kunye nezinye izikali ezongezelelweyo.

Kungenxa yoko le nto ukusetyenziswa kwayo bekuqhelekile phambi kweenyikima ezinobunzulu benyikima obuyi-6,9 amanqaku, kuba ezinye izikali ezihambelanayo zisetyenzisiwe ukusukela ngoko, kodwa ngokuchaneka okukhulu kunye nokusetyenziswa. Nangona kunjalo, oku akwaziwa kwaye kuhlala kuxelwa ngobuxoki ngamajelo eendaba.

Ifomula yesikali seRichter

imilinganiselo yenyikima

Isikali esicetywa nguRichter sisebenzisa iilogarithm, siphindaphinda ingqiqo yesikali sobukhulu beenkwenkwezi. Ifomula yayo yokubala imi ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

M = logA + 3log (8Δt) – 2,92 = log10 [(A.Δt3)/(1,62)]

Kuphi:

  • M = inyikima ethandabuzekayo kodwa engaguqukiyo ikhupha amandla afanayo
  • A = i-seismic wave amplitude ebhalwe ngamaza enyikima, ngeemilimitha
  • t = ixesha kwimizuzwana ukususela ekuqaleni kweprayimari (P) ukuya kwisibini (S) wave.

Izixhobo

Isikali seRichter

Isikali siphakathi kweedigri ze-1.5 ukuya kwi-12. Enyanisweni, phambi kwenqanaba lesibini, iinyikima aziqhelekanga ukuthetha ngazo, kuba ziyi-micro-earthquakes ezingenakubonwa ngabantu. Bhalisa ukuya kuthi ga kwi-8.000 yeentshukumo ngosuku. Iinyikima ezingaphezulu kobukhulu be-4 zithathwa njengezincinci, zihlala zirekhodwa kwi-seismographs, kodwa aziqapheli kwaye azifane zibangele umonakalo. Inqanaba lesi-4 alikho kabini njengenqanaba lesi-2, kodwa amaxesha angama-100 ngaphezulu.

Owona monakalo mkhulu unokwenzeka kwinqanaba lesi-4. Iinyikima zithathwa njengeenyikima ezilinganiselayo eziqala kubukhulu be-5, kunye neenyikima ezinjalo ezimalunga nama-800 ngonyaka. Iinyikima zolu hlobo ngokuqhelekileyo zibangela umonakalo kwizakhiwo ezingakhiwanga kakuhle kunye nomonakalo othile ozimeleyo kwizakhiwo ezikhulu.

Inqanaba lesi-6 lithathwa ngokuba linamandla kwaye linokubangela umonakalo kwindawo eyi-160 yeekhilomitha ububanzi. Ukuze siqonde ubukhulu balo mkhamo, kwanele ukukhumbula inyikima enomkhamo osisi-6,9 eye yatshabalalisa iItali, eyabulala abantu abangama-294 yaza yashiya abantu abangama-50.000 4 bengenamakhaya. Inqanaba lesi-2 alikho kabini njengenqanaba lesi-100, kodwa amaxesha angama-XNUMX ngaphezulu.

Esi sikali "sivulekileyo", ngoko ke akukho mda wethiyori uphezulu, ngaphaya komda onikwe amandla ewonke aqokelelwe kwipleyiti nganye, eya kuba ngumda eMhlabeni, kungekhona umda kwisikali. Inkqubo yokukala amanani yaseRoma isenokusetyenziswa. Oku kulandelelwano ukuze ubunzulu IV buphindeke kabini kunabo be-II.

izidanga zesikali

  • IBakala I: Bambalwa kakhulu abantu abaziva umothuko womyalelo wokuqala phantsi kweemeko ezilunge ngakumbi.
  • IBakala II: Iintshukumo zeNqanaba lesi-2 zivakala kuphela ngabantu abambalwa abaphumlileyo, ngakumbi kwimigangatho ephezulu yezakhiwo. Izinto ezixhonyiweyo zinokujinga.
  • IBakala III: Inyikima ye-3 ye-magnitude yavakala ngokucacileyo ngaphakathi, ngakumbi kwimigangatho ephezulu yezakhiwo, kwaye abantu abaninzi abazange bayidibanise nenyikima. Iimoto ezipakishiweyo zinokuhamba kancinci. Ukungcangcazela, okufana noko kubangelwa kukuhamba kwezithuthi ezinzima. Ubude obuqikelelweyo.
  • IGrado IV: Emini, abantu abaninzi baziva bengaphakathi kwaye bambalwa ngaphandle. Ukungcangcazela kwezinto zokusika, iifestile kunye neengcango zeglasi; iindonga eziqhekezayo. Kuvakala ngathi isithuthi esinzima esibetha isakhiwo kwaye sipake iimoto ezihambayo zishukuma ngokubonakalayo.
  • Ibanga lesi-XNUMX: Phantse wonke umntu uyaziva. Abaninzi bavuka kunye neengqayi zobumba eziqhekekileyo, iglasi, njl., bambalwa kakhulu abatyumzayo kunye nokuqhekeka, ukuwa kwezinto ezingazinzanga. Ukuphazamiseka kubonwa kwimithi, iipali zamandla kunye nezinye izinto ezide.
  • IBakala VI: abantu abaninzi aboyikayo babalekela ngaphandle. Enye ifanitshala enzima itshintsha indawo; kukho iitshimini eziwileyo okanye ezonakeleyo. Ukwenzakala okuncinci.
  • IBakala VII: Abantu babalekela kwamanye amazwe. Umonakalo omncinci kwizakhiwo eziyilwe kakuhle kunye nezakhiweyo. Umonakalo omncinci kwizakhiwo eziqhelekileyo ezakhiwe kakuhle; umonakalo omkhulu kubantu ababuthathaka okanye abakwimeko embi; ukophuka kwezinye iitshimini.
  • IBakala VIII: Umonakalo omncinci kwizakhiwo ezilungiselelwe kakuhle; kakhulu kwizakhiwo eziqhelekileyo ezidilikayo; ukuwa kwiitshimini, imveliso iwela kwiindawo zokugcina iimpahla, iintsika, izikhumbuzo kunye neendonga. Iingcebiso zefenitshala enzima ngaphezulu. Izixa ezincinci zesanti kunye nodaka olutshiziweyo. Utshintsho kwinqanaba lamanzi omthombo. Abantu abaqhuba izithuthi bayaphulukana nolawulo.
  • IBakala IX: Umonakalo omkhulu kwizakhiwo eziyilwe kakuhle; umonakalo omkhulu kwizakhiwo eziqinileyo, ukuwa kwenxalenye. Izakhiwo ziyawa kwiziseko zazo. Umhlaba uqhekeke ngokucacileyo. Ukudubula kwemibhobho engaphantsi komhlaba.
  • IBanga X- Ukutshatyalaliswa kwezakhiwo zokhuni ezakhiwe kakuhle; uninzi lwezakhiwo ezixhobileyo kunye nezamatye zitshatyalaliswe ngokupheleleyo kunye neziseko; iintanda emhlabeni. Iireyile ziyajijeka. Kukho ukudilika komhlaba okumbalwa kwiindonga zemilambo kunye namathambeka angamaqhina. Amanzi omlambo angena kwiindonga zawo.
  • IBakala XI: iibhulorho ezitshatyalalisiwe. Iintanda emhlabeni. Ukuhlaliswa kunye nezilayidi kwiziseko ezithambileyo zomhlaba. Ukujika okukhulu kweereyili.
  • Ibanga le-XNUMX: ukutshatyalaliswa ngokupheleleyo. Amariphu abonakalayo emhlabeni. Iziphazamiso zokuphakama kwenqanaba (imilambo, amachibi kunye nolwandle). Izinto ezijulwe emoyeni phezulu.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nesikali seRichter kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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