IPlankton

IPlankton

Ikhonkco kwityathanga lokutya elwandle liqala ngezinto ezincinci ezaziwa njenge Iplankton. Kusisiqalo sekhonkco lokutya elisekwe kwizinto ezincinci kakhulu ezenza i-photosynthesis kwaye zisebenza njengesiseko sokutya kwizinto ezininzi eziphila elwandle. Le plankton ibaluleke kakhulu kuphuhliso lwendalo kunye nobomi baselwandle.

Ke ngoko, siza kulinikela eli nqaku ukukuxelela ukuba yintoni iplankton, kubaluleke kangakanani, kunye neempawu zayo eziphambili.

Yintoni iplankton

iplankton encinci

IPlankton liqela lezinto eziphilayo ezihamba ngokuhamba kwamaza olwandle. Igama plankton lithetha ukubhadula okanye ukuhambahamba. Le seti yezinto eziphilayo zininzi kakhulu, zahlukile kwaye zinendawo yokuhlala kuzo zombini amanzi acocekileyo kunye namanzi olwandle. Kwezinye iindawo banokufikelela kwizigidi ngezigidi zabantu kwaye baya kunyuka kwiilwandle ezibandayo. Kwezinye iinkqubo ze-lentic ezinje ngamachibi, amachibi okanye izikhongozeli apho amanzi aphumle khona, sinokufumana iplankton.

Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeplankton ngokokutya kwazo kunye nohlobo lweemilo. Sizahlula phakathi kwabo:

  • UPhytoplankton: Luhlobo lwesityalo seplankton esinomsebenzi ofana kakhulu nezityalo kuba zifumana amandla kunye nezinto eziphilayo ngokwenza ifotosinthesisi. Iyakwazi ukuhlala kumaleko wamanzi, oko kukuthi, indawo yolwandle okanye amanzi apho ifumana ilanga ngqo. Inokubakho phantsi kubunzulu obumalunga neemitha ezingama-200 apho inani lokukhanya kwelanga lisihla lisihla. Le phytoplankton ibunjwe ikakhulu yi-cyanobacteria, diatoms, kunye ne-dinoflagellates.
  • Zooplankton: Yiplankton yezilwanyana ezondla kwi-phytoplankton kunye nezinye izinto ezikhoyo kwiqela elinye. Yenziwe ikakhulu zii-crustaceans, i-jellyfish, imibungu yeentlanzi kunye nezinye izinto ezincinci. Ezi zinto zinokwahlulwa ngokuxhomekeke kwixesha lobomi. Kukho izinto eziphilayo eziyinxalenye yeplankton kubomi bayo bonke kwaye zibizwa ngokuba yiholoplankton. Kwelinye icala, ezo ziyinxalenye ye zooplankton ngexesha lexesha ebomini babo (ngesiqhelo xa zilibungu) zaziwa ngegama le meroplankton.
  • Bacterioplankton: Luhlobo olo lweplankton olwenziwe luluntu lweebhaktiriya. Owona msebenzi wabo kukubola i-detritus kwaye badlala indima ebalulekileyo kwimijikelo ye-biogeochemical yezinto ezithile ezinjengekhabhoni, initrogen, ioksijini kunye nephosphorus. Ingena kwakhona kumatyathanga okutya.
  • Virioplankton: zizo zonke ezo ntsholongwane zasemanzini. Ziqulathe ikakhulu intsholongwane ye-bacteriophage kunye nolunye ulwelwe lweeukaryotic. Owona msebenzi uphambili kukukhumbula kwakhona izondlo kwimijikelezo ye-biogeochemical kwaye iyinxalenye yetyathiki yetropiki.

Iimpawu ze-microorganisms

iplankton phantsi kwemicroscope

Uninzi lwezinto eziphilayo kwi-plankton zincinci ngobukhulu. Oku kwenza ukuba kube nzima ukubona ngamehlo. Ubungakanani obuqhelekileyo bezinto eziphilayo buphakathi kwe-60 microns kunye mm. Iindidi ezahlukeneyo zeplankton ezinokubakho emanzini zezi zilandelayo:

  • IiltraplanktonZimalunga ne-5 microns ngobukhulu. Zizona zincinci zincinci zibandakanya ibhaktheriya kunye neeflegellate ezincinci. I-flagellate yezo zinto ziphilayo zine-flagellum.
  • INanoplankton: Zimalunga ne-5 ukuya kwi-60 mitres ngobukhulu kwaye zenziwe nge-unicellular microalgae ezinje ngeediatom ezincinci kunye necoccolithophores.
  • Microplankton: Banobungakanani obukhulu obufikelela phakathi kwe-60 microns kunye ne-1 millimeter. Apha sifumana i-unicellular microalgae, mollusk larvae kunye neepopepods.
  • UMesoplankton: obu bungakanani bezinto eziphilayo kwaye bunokubonwa ngeliso lomntu. Iphakathi ko-1 no-5 mm ubukhulu kwaye yenziwe ngemibungu yeentlanzi.
  • IMacroplankton: iphakathi kweemilimitha ezintlanu kunye neesentimitha ezili-5 ngokobukhulu. ISargasso, iisalps kunye nejellyfish zingena apha.
  • Megaloplankton: zezo ziphilayo zinkulu kuneesentimitha ezili-10 ngokobukhulu. Apha sinayo ijellyfish.

Zonke izinto eziphilayo ezikhoyo kwiplankton zinemilo yomzimba eyahlukileyo kwaye ziyaphendula kwiimfuno zommandla ezihlala kuwo. Enye yezi mfuno zomzimba kukuntywila okanye ukubonakala kwamanzi. Kubo, imeko-bume yaselwandle ine-viscous kwaye ibangela ukuba badinga ukoyisa ukuxhathisa ukuze bahambe emanzini.

Kukho izicwangciso ezininzi kunye nolungelelwaniso olukhuthaze amanzi adadayo ukwandisa amathuba okusinda. Yandisa indawo yomphezulu womzimba, faka amathontsi amanqatha kwicytoplasm, isikrweqe esichithwayo, iimolts kunye nolunye ulwakhiwo Zizicwangciso ezahlukeneyo kunye nolungelelwaniso ukuze bakwazi ukusinda kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zolwandle kunye namanzi amatsha. Kukho ezinye izinto eziphilayo

Banokuqubha okufanelekileyo kwaye siyabulela kwiflagella kunye nezinye izixhobo zokusebenza ezinje ngee-locomotive ezifana neepopepods. I-viscosity yokutshintsha kwamanzi ngobushushu. Nangona singazibonakalisi ngeliso lenyama, izinto eziphilayo ezincinci ziyabona. Kwiindawo ezinamanzi afudumeleyo i-viscosity yamanzi iphantsi. Oku kuchaphazela ukuqaqamba kwabantu. Ngesi sizathu, iidiatom ziphuhlise i-cyclomorphosis, enesakhono sokuphuhlisa imilo eyahlukeneyo ehlotyeni nasebusika ukuze iqhelane ne-viscosity yamanzi njengomsebenzi wobushushu.

Ukubaluleka kweplankton

Kuhlala kusithiwa iplankton yinto ebalulekileyo nakweyiphi na indawo yokuhlala elwandle. Ukubaluleka kwayo kuxhomekeke kwityathanga lokutya. Imalunga noluntu lwezinto eziphilayo apho uthungelwano lwe-trophic phakathi kwabavelisi, abathengi kunye nokubola kuye kwasekwa. I-Phytoplankton iyakwazi ukuguqula amandla elanga abe ngamandla afumanekayo kubo bobabini abathengi kunye nokubola.

I-Phytoplankton ityiwa zi-zooplankton kwaye, zona, zizilwanyana ezitya inyama kunye ne-omnivores. Ezi zizilwanyana zezinye izinto eziphilayo kwaye i-decomposers ithatha inzuzo yesidumbu. Le yindlela ukutya okuvela ngayo kwindawo ezihlala emanzini. Ukuba ikhonkco lokuqala kulo lonke ikhonkco, iplankton iba yeyona nto ibalulekileyo kubo bonke ubomi baselwandle.

Ndiyathemba ukuba olu lwazi ungafunda ngakumbi malunga neplankton kunye nokubaluleka kwayo kwindalo yolwandle.


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