Intaba-mlilo iPopocatepetl

Intaba-mlilo iPopocatepetl

Ngenxa yemvelaphi yayo yesiNahuatl, igama layo lithetha "intaba yokutshaya", ngenxa yokuphakama kwayo yeyona ndawo iphakamileyo yaseMexico emva kwePico de Orizaba, kwaye ngenxa yokuba kufuphi needolophu ezininzi, iMexico ithathwa njengenye yezona ntaba mlilo ziyingozi kakhulu eMexico. ihlabathi.. Ukwabizwa ngokuba ngu "Don Goyo" okanye ngokulula "Popo". I Intaba-mlilo yasePopocatepetl Yi stratovolcano okanye ivolcano edibeneyo. Ichazwa njengentaba-mlilo eqhubekayo, yeyona ntaba-mlilo iqhumayo eMexico. Ikumazwe asePuebla, eMorelos naseMexico, emazantsi eSixeko saseMexico, kwiphondo lejografi elibizwa ngokuba yiNew Volcanic Axis okanye iTransversal Volcanic Axis, ikhonkco leentaba-mlilo ezibandakanya i-Ixtacihuatl, iParicutín kunye neNevada de Toluca, phakathi kwabanye.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga nentaba-mlilo yasePopocatépetl, imvelaphi yayo, ugqabhuko-dubulo kunye nobungozi.

Iimpawu eziphambili

Ukutshabalalisa intaba-mlilo

Imbonakalo iphantse ilingane, igubungela indawo yeehektare ezingama-283192.53 kunye nokuphakama kweemitha ezingama-5426. Inecrater emile okweqanda eneendonga eziphakamileyo, iimitha ezingama-150 ubunzulu ukusuka kumlebe ongezantsi, ububanzi. mkhulu kuneemitha ezingama-900 kunye nobubanzi bubonke bungama-400 x 600 eemitha.

Ubume bendawo engqonge iPopocatepetl iqulathe iindidi ezahlukeneyo zenkqubo yendalo kunye neentlobo ngeentlobo zezityalo nezilwanyana. Kukho amahlathi axubileyo epayini, i-oki kunye ne-holm oak, apho ukuya kuthi ga kwi-1.000 leentlobo zezityalo ezihlala kunye. Kwicone, ubukhulu becala ngasemlonyeni, kukho imikhenkce eye yancipha kwiminyaka yakutshanje.

Ukusekwa kwentaba-mlilo yasePopocatepetl

IPopocatépetl yintaba-mlilo encinane ngokwejoloji. Kukholelwa ukuba imalunga nama-730.000 eminyaka ubudala kwaye yintsalela yokuwa kwentaba-mlilo yamandulo. Imbali yayo iqala ngokusekwa kwe-Volcano ye-Nexpayantla ngokukhutshwa kodaka lwe-andesite kunye ne-dacite. Kwiminyaka kamva, i-volcano yawa, idala i-caldera, ukudakumba okubanzi, okunzulu kunye negumbi le-magma elingezantsi.

Kwandula ke kwavela intaba-mlilo entsha, iVentorillo, kodwa yawa malunga neminyaka engama-23.000 XNUMX eyadlulayo. Kamva, i-volcano ye-El Fraile yaqala ukubonakala, kodwa emva kwexesha nayo yawa ngenxa yogqabhuko-dubulo olunamandla, emva koko icala elisezantsi le-cone latshatyalaliswa.

I-Popocatépetl yanamhlanje yavela kwi-Late Pleistocene-Holocene, emva kokuwa kwe-El Fraile. I-Don Goyo cone yakhula ngokuthe ngcembe yaya kubukhulu obukhulu, kodwa yavelisa ugqabhuko-dubulo olunamandla olwathi lwadilika elinye icala lecone kwaye lwavelisa isixa esikhulu sentlenga egqume umphezulu. Ubuncinci ama-avalanche ama-4 kamva abe negalelo kwicone yanamhlanje.

Ukuqhuma kwePopocatepetl

ugqabhuko-dubulo lwentaba-mlilo yepopocatepetl

Yi-andesite-dacite stratovolcano. Ukususela kwi-Holocene ephakathi, kukho ii-3 ezinkulu zePlinian eziqhumayo; Eyokugqibela yenzeka ngo-800 AD C. Kuqikelelwa ukuba yayisebenza ngaphezu kwesiqingatha sesigidi seminyaka, kwaye imbali yayo yogqabhuko-dubulo ibanzi kakhulu.

Ama-Aztec abhala iziganeko ezininzi kuluhlu lwawo, njengaleyo yenzeka ngowe-1509 AD, equlethwe kwiTelleriano-Remensis nakwiCodex yaseVatican. Umsebenzi we-volcanic waqala ngo-1519 kwaye wenyuka ngo-1530. Phakathi kuka-1539 kunye no-1549 kwakukho ugqabhuko-dubulo oluphakathi olwathi lwakhulula i-pumice kumbindi woMhlaba.

Ebudeni benkulungwane yama-1947, kuye kwakho ugqabhuko-dubulo oluncinane ukusa koluqatha, olokugqibela lolona lungalibalekiyo ngowe-1994. Igesi ekhutshwayo kunye nothuthu kwanyanzela abahlali abakufutshane ukuba baphume kumakhaya abo ukuze bakhuseleke. Le yindawo ebalulekileyo kubantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-25 abahlala kumgama oziikhilomitha ezili-100 ukusuka kwi-crater, ingakumbi kubantu abaphantse babe ngama-325 abahlala kumgama oziikhilomitha ezi-5.

Ngo-2000, intaba-mlilo yaba nogqabhuko-dubulo olukhulu kwiminyaka eyi-1200. NgoDisemba 18 nowe-19 waloo nyaka, yakhupha izinto ezininzi ezitshisayo kwiziqendu ezithathu, yaye ngoDisemba 24, yakhupha inkunkuma emalunga neekhilomitha ezi-2,5 ubude yaza yavelisa uthuthu olumalunga neekhilomitha ezi-5 ukuphakama. UDon Goyo uyasebenza njengakuqala, ephefumla ngamaxesha athile kunye nokugqabhuka okuphakathi.

Ukutyelela

intaba-mlilo yaseMexico

Enye yezona ndawo zibalaseleyo zokujonga i-volcano yiPaso de Cortés, indawo engaphezulu kweemitha ezingama-3600 ukuphakama phakathi kweenyawo zento ebizwa ngokuba yi-Iztaccíhuatl kunye nePopocatépetl kumasipala wase-Amecameca. Lo mmandla wathiywa ngegama lika-Hernán Cortés, owathi ngokwembali wadlula apho akufika eTenochtitlán.

Amathikithi angathengwa ukungena kwi-Izta-Popo National Park, kwaye ngeentsuku ezicacileyo ungabona iLa Malinche kunye nePico de Orizaba kude. I-Paso de Cortés ikwayindawo yokuqala ukufikelela eLa Joya (3950 masl), ukusuka apho abakhweli benyuka besiya kwintaba-mlilo yase-Iztaccíhuatl. Umnyango we-Izta-Popo National Park yi-30.50 MXN.

Intsomi yentaba-mlilo yasePopocatépetl

Lo ngumhlaba ohombisa esinye sezona zixeko zikhulu ehlabathini: isiXeko saseMexico, ikhaya lezona ntaba-mlilo zimbini ziphakamileyo elizweni: Iztaccíhuatl kunye nePopocatepetl.

Umbhali waseMexico kunye nentatheli uCarlos Villa Roiz uxelela kwincwadi yakhe ethi Popocatépetl ukuba ebuntwaneni, xa ama-Aztec efika kwiintlambo zaseMexico, iTenochtitlan enkulu yazalwa, kwaye inkosazana enhle u-Mixtli wayeyintombi yaseTizoc. Mekhsikho). U-Mixtli yinzwakazi efunwa ngamadoda amaninzi, kuquka no-Axooxco, u-Axooxco, ibhinqa elingenalusini elabhengeza iSandla seNkosazana. Kodwa intliziyo yentombazana yeyomnye wawona magorha amahle kakhulu elalini, umlo ogama linguPopoka. Bobabini babonakalisa uthando olungasikelwanga mda.

Ukwenza isivumelwano kunye noyise wenkosazana, uPopoca walwa ukuze aphumelele isihloko se-Eagle Knight, ngaloo ndlela enika isandla sikaMistry ku-Aksoko. Sithathele ingqalelo isithembiso sikaMistry nabanye. Xa uPopoca wazibandakanya, uMistry wabona abalweli bakhe boyiswa kwaye bafela edabini.

Ebuhlungu ngenxa yokufelwa sisithandwa sakhe, U-Mixtli wathatha ubomi bakhe engazi ukuba uPopoca uya kubuya ephumelele, phambi kokungenzeki kothando lwakhe. IPopoca yasilwa namakhulukhulu amajoni kangangeminyaka. Ngexesha elithile kamva, uPopoka wabuya ephumelele ukufumana intanda yakhe ifile. Umphumi-mkhosi owoyisileyo ngoku unoloyiso, ubutyebi, namandla, kodwa akanalo uthando.

Andula ke amaSamurai asithabatha isidumbu senkosazana aza ayalela ukuba kwakhiwe ingcwaba elikhulu kwinduli enkulu ejongene nelanga, kwaza kwafunjwa iinduli ezilishumi ukuze zisibeke phezu kwazo eso sidumbu silele engcwabeni.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga nentaba-mlilo yasePopocatépetl kunye neempawu zayo.


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  1. Uxanduva lwedatha: UMiguel Ángel Gatón
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