Ubomi bukaMarie Curie

Ibhayografi kaMarie curie kunye nobomi

UMarie Curie wayeyingcali yefiziksi kunye nekhemisti eyazalelwa ePoland eyafumanisa i-radioactivity kwaye yaba nguvulindlela kufundo lwezinto ezinemitha. Wayengowasetyhini wokuqala ukuphumelela iBhaso leNobel kwaye inguye yedwa owasetyhini owafumana amabini kula mabhaso kwiinkalo ezahlukeneyo. Wayenemisebenzi emikhulu kwihlabathi lezenzululwazi. Ngoko ke, i ngobomi bukaMarie Curie kunomdla kakhulu ukuqaphela.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke i-biography kaMarie Curie, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kunye nezinto azibhaqileyo.

Ubomi bukaMarie Curie

Ibhayografi kaMarie curie

Ungowokugqibela kubantwana abahlanu bakatitshala uBronislawa Boguska noWladyslaw Sklodowski, ababefundisa imathematika kunye nefiziksi. Waqala ukuya kwisikolo ekuhlalwa kuso i-J. Sikorska xa wayeneminyaka eli-10 ubudala. Emva koko waya kwisikolo samantombazana waza waphumelela imbasa yegolide ngoJuni 12, 1883.

Mhlawumbi ngenxa yokudandatheka, wawa waza wachitha unyaka ezilalini kunye nezalamane zikayise, kunyaka olandelayo eWarsaw noyise, apho wanika izifundo zabucala kuba wayengenakungena kumaziko emfundo ephakamileyo ngenxa yokuba wayengumfazi. Ekunye nodadewabo uBroniswara, wangena kwi-Uniwersytet Latajacy eyimfihlo, iziko lemfundo ephakamileyo labafundi ababhinqileyo. Ngo-1891 waya eParis waza watshintsha igama lakhe wanguMarie. Ngowe-1891 wabhalisa kwikhosi yenzululwazi eSorbonne eParis. Kwiminyaka emibini kamva, wagqiba izifundo zakhe zefiziksi encotsheni yeklasi yakhe. Ufunda kwaye adlale kwithiyetha engaqhelekanga, ebelana ngexesha lakhe lokufunda.

Utshatile kuPierre Curie

Ngowe-1894 wadibana noPierre Curie. Ngelo xesha, bobabini babesebenza kwintsimi yemagnetism. UPierre Curie, oneminyaka engama-35, lithemba elikhulu kuluntu lwefiziksi yaseFransi. Ngoko nangoko walithanda ibhinqa lasePoland elinobukhazikhazi eliphantse libe lingqwabalala elineminyaka engama-27 ubudala elalithetha ngeenkolelo zalo zokungakhathali ngesayensi. Emva kokuba uPierre amcebise waza wamcenga ukuba ahlale eParis, babhiyozela umtshato wabo ngoJulayi 26, 1895 ngendlela elula emangalisayo: akukho mbutho, akukho misesane yomtshato, akukho ilokhwe emhlophe.. Umtshakazi, enxibe isuti elula eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, waqala uhambo lwakhe lwasemva komtshato ngebhayisekile kunye nomyeni kwindlela yaseFransi.

Esi sibini sasineentombi ezimbini, enye yazo nayo yaphumelela iBhaso likaNobel: u-Irène Joliot-Curie nomyeni wakhe uFrédéric bafumana iBhaso leNobel kwiChemistry ngo-1935 ngokufumana izinto ezintsha zeradioactive.

Wafumanisa ntoni uMarie Curie?

curie usapho

UMarie Curie wachukunyiswa luhlobo olutsha lwemitha yemitha. UWilhelm Roentgen wafumanisa iiX-reyi ngowe-1895 waza uAntoine-Henri Becquerel ngowe-1896 wafumanisa ukuba iuranium ikhupha imitha efanayo engabonakaliyo. Nangona kunjalo, waqala ukufunda ngemitha ye-uranium kwaye, esebenzisa ubuchule be-piezoelectric eyenziwe nguPierre, walinganisa ngokucokisekileyo i-radiation kwi-pitchblende, iminerali ene-uranium. Wathi akubona ukuba imitha yentsimbi ekrwada yayinamandla ngakumbi kunaleyo ye<em>uranium ngokwayo, waqonda ukuba kumele kubekho into engaziwayo, enemitha eyingozi ngakumbi kune<em>uranium. UMarie Curie Wayengowokuqala ukusebenzisa igama elithi "radioactive" ukuchaza into ekhupha imitha xa i-nucleus yayo ibola.

Umlawuli kaPierre Curie wavuma ukuba uMarie waseka njengelebhu iyunithi yeSikolo sikaMasipala seFiziksi neKhemistri esisebenza njengendawo yokugcina impahla kunye negumbi lenjini. UMarie Curie waqala uphando lwakhe apho, esebenzisa i-electrometer eyasungulwa nguPierre kunye nomntakwabo ukulinganisa ubunzulu bangoku obubangelwa yi-uranium eyahlukeneyo kunye ne-thorium compounds, ngokukhawuleza eqinisekisa ukuba umsebenzi weetyuwa ze-uranium uxhomekeke kuphela kwisixa se-uranium ekhoyo. nokuba zeziphi na ezinye iimeko.

Ngokwembono yenzululwazi, oku kwakuyeyona nto ibalulekileyo awayifumanisayo, ekubeni yayibonisa ukuba imitha yemitha inokuphuma kuphela kwiathom ngokwayo, kungakhathaliseki ukuba yintoni na eyongezelelekileyo okanye ukusabela kwemichiza. Kodwa uMarie Curie akazange azonwabise ngokucamngca ngalo mphumo; wandisa uphando lwakhe kwi-pitchblende kunye ne-chalcolite, efumanisa ukuba zisebenza ngakumbi kune-uranium. Ngokusuka koku uye wafumanisa ubukho kwezi zimbiwa kwenye into entsha, enoxanduva lo msebenzi mkhulu.

Umyeni wakhe wagqiba ukufunda ngemagnethi, ejoyina inkosikazi yakhe, kwaye ngo-1898 esi sibini sabhengeza ukufunyanwa kwezinto ezimbini ezintsha: ipolonium (uMariya otheywe ngegama lelizwe lokuzalwa) kunye neradium. Kwiminyaka emine eyalandelayo, esi sibini sasebenza phantsi kweemeko ezingazinzanga, silungisa itoni ye-amphibole ye-pitch, apho bahlula igram ye-radium.

Owasetyhini wokuqala owafumana iwonga leNobel

imisebenzi yesayensi

Ngo-1903, babelana ngeBhaso leNobel kwiFiziksi kunye no-Becquerel ngokufumanisa kwabo izinto ezine-radioactive. Kubo, nangona kunjalo, olu zuko "yayiyintlekele", zombini imfihlo kakhulu, iginywe yintshiseko efanayo yophando, xa bazifumana bebekwe ecaleni kuphando kwaye babona iilebhu zabo zitshayelwa yi-anachronisms. Wonke umntu wabandezeleka xa abantu bahlasela kwaye inkundla yakhe ethobekileyo eParis yahlaselwa ziintatheli kunye nabafoti. Ziya zisanda iiofisi zeposi zijongana nemisebenzi ebakhathazayo ngeeCawe. UMarie Curie waba ngumfazi wokuqala ukufumana ibhaso.

Ngowe-1904, uPierre Curie wamiselwa njengonjingalwazi wefiziksi kwiYunivesithi yaseParis, yaye ngowe-1905 waba lilungu leFrench Academy of Sciences. Ezi zikhundla azidli ngokuzaliswa ngabasetyhini, kwaye uMary akanayo inkxaso efanayo. Ngo-Aprili 19, 1906, uPierre wabulawa yinqwelwana njengoko wayewela iSitrato saseDauphin. Ukusukela ngoko, uMary ebephethe izifundo zakhe kwaye waqhubeka nophando lwakhe.

Ibhaso leNobel kwiChemistry

Ngomnyaka we-1911, uMarie wabandakanyeka kwihlazo xa wangena kubudlelwane kunye ne-physicist etshatileyo uPaul Langevin. Amanye amajelo abonisa "amasela omyeni" kunye "nabasemzini." Kwangaloo nyaka, wafumana ibhaso lesibini leNobel kwiChemistry ngophando lwakhe kwiradium kunye neekhompawundi zayo. Ngo-1914, wamiselwa njengomphathi weZiko loSasazo laseParis kwaza kwasekwa iCurie Institute.

NgoMeyi 1921, ngenxa yentatheli yaseMelika uMary Meloney, yena kunye neentombi zakhe bafudukela eUnited States, apho, ngenxa yenkxaso-mali eyaphakanyiswa luluntu lwasePoland kunye noosozigidi baseMelika, bakwazi ukuxhasa iRadium Institute. Igram enye yeradium yafunyanwa. Kwakhona, wanikwa imali eyongezelelweyo yokuthenga izixhobo zaselabhoratri.

UMarie Curie wahlaselwa yi-anemia eyingozi ngenxa yokuvezwa ixesha elide kwimitha. Emva kokuba eyimfama, wafa ngoJulayi 4, 1934, kwikliniki yaseSancellemoz kufuphi nePassy, ​​​​eHaute-Savoie, eFransi. Ungcwatywe kumangcwaba eSceaux, iikhilomitha ezimbalwa emazantsi eParis, ecaleni komyeni wakhe.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-biography kaMarie Curie kunye nokusetyenziswa kwakhe.


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  1.   Cesar sitsho

    Njengoko ndihlala ndiluvuyiswa lulwazi oluncomekayo ngolo hlobo ndityebisa inkcubeko yam ngokubanzi.. Molweni