I-Volcanism: yonke into ofuna ukuyazi

yintoni i-volcanism

Kukho izinto ezininzi ezahlukeneyo ezikhutshwe ngentaba-mlilo ngexesha logqabhuko-dubulo, ezi zinokuba yigesi, ziqine, zibe lulwelo kunye/okanye zingabi namanzi. Olu gqabhuko-dubulo lwenzeka ngexesha lentaba-mlilo ngenxa yobushushu obuphezulu kunye noxinzelelo ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. I intaba-mlilo Yenzeka okanye iseti yeziganeko zejoloji ezenzeka ukusuka ekubunjweni kwe-magma kunye nokuphuma kwayo phezulu.

Kweli nqaku siza kukuxelela yonke into ofuna ukuyazi malunga ne-volcanism, iimpawu zayo kunye nokubaluleka kwayo.

yintoni i-volcanism

udaka luqukuqela

Idalwa yimbuyekezo ye izinto ezinzima ezihamba emhlabeni. Ezi zenza uxinzelelo kumatye alulwelo engubo, ewatyhalela phezulu. Inkalo yophononongo ejongene nezinto ezibonakalayo kunye neekhemikhali zentshukumo yentaba-mlilo ibizwa ngokuba yi-volcanology. Lisebe le-geology elihlalutya iintaba-mlilo, imithombo, i-fumaroles, i-eruptions, i-magma, i-lava kunye ne-pyroclastic okanye i-volcanic ash kunye neminye imisebenzi ehambelana nesiganeko.

Intaba-mlilo yinto eyenzeka kwijoloji. Ichaphazela kakhulu indawo ezisesichengeni kuqweqwe lomhlaba, apho i-magma ihamba isuka kwi-lithosphere ukuya phezulu. Umsebenzi intaba-mlilo ithetha urhulumente i-physiochemical, ibonakaliswe ngokusebenzisa microseisms kunye nogqabhuko-dubulo, ezinokuba fumaroles ezinkulu okanye ezilula.

Kuxhomekeka kuhlobo lomsebenzi, intaba-mlilo ibizwa ngokuba kugqabhuko-dubulo, ugqabhuko-dubulo, okanye umhlanganiselwa. I-effusive ibonakala ngokukhutshwa okuzolileyo kwe-lava kunye negesi. Iziqhushumbisi zidlula kwizinto ezinobundlobongela nezonakalisayo. Umxube kukutshintshana kogqabhuko-dubulo oluthambileyo noluqhumayo.

Kukho i-octave scale ye-Volcanic Eruption Index, ethi iingcali zisebenzise ukulinganisa ubungakanani bogqabhuko-mlilo. Oku kuthathela ingqalelo iimveliso zokuqhuma kwentaba-mlilo: i-lava, i-pyroclasts, umlotha kunye neegesi. Ezinye izinto ziquka ukuphakama kwelifu eliqhumayo kunye ne-injected tropospheric kunye ne-stratospheric emissions. kwisikali, I-1 ibonisa ukukhanya kokukhanya; 2, uqhushumbo; 3, enogonyamelo; 4, yintlekele; 5, intlekele; 6, inkulu; 7, inkulu kakhulu; kunye no-8; iapocalyptic.

Yenziwa njani?

intaba-mlilo

I-volcanism iveliswa ngamaqondo obushushu aphezulu kunye noxinzelelo ngaphakathi eMhlabeni. Ukunyakaza kwe-lava kwi-mantle kubangelwa yi-thermal convection. I imisinga yolwandle, kunye nomxhuzulane, kuqhuba intshukumo eqhubekayo yeetectonic plates kwaye, ngokuthe rhoqo, ukwenzeka kwentaba-mlilo.

IMagma ifikelela kumphezulu woMhlaba ngeentaba-mlilo ezibekwe kwimida kunye/okanye iindawo ezishushu zeetectonic plates. Ukuziphatha kwayo kumphezulu kuxhomekeke ekungqineni kwe-magma kwi-mantle. I-Viscous okanye i-magma engqindilili inokubangela ugqabhuko lwentaba-mlilo. Ulwelo okanye i-magma engabonakaliyo ivelisa intaba-mlilo eqhumayo, iphosa udaka olukhulu phezu komhlaba.

Zeziphi iintlobo ezikhoyo?

Ukuhlelwa ngokubanzi kwahlula iindidi ezimbini zeentaba-mlilo, eziziiprayimari nezizisekondari. I-volcanism ephambili yohlulwe ngakumbi ngohlobo olusembindini kunye nohlobo lokuqhekeka. Eyokuqala yavela kwi crater. Okwesibini, ngeentanda okanye iintanda ezisemhlabeni. Intaba-mlilo yesibini esebenza kwimithombo eshushu, kwiigiza, nakwiifumaroles.

Olunye ulwahlulo lujolise kwindlela ye-magma ephuma ngaphakathi kwiMhlaba ukuya phezulu. Ngokwale nto, kukho iindidi ezimbini ze-volcanism: i-intrusive okanye i-subvolcanic kunye ne-eruptive, apho ilitye eliqhumayo lifikelela emhlabeni.

Yintoni i-volcanism ephazamisayo?

intaba-mlilo engenelelayo kukushukuma kwemagma kumhlaba. Ebudeni bale nkqubo, amatye anyibilikisiweyo ayaphola aze omelele phakathi kokwakheka kwamatye okanye umaleko ngaphandle kokufikelela kumphezulu.

Iziganeko ze-Subvolcanic zinoxanduva lokwenziwa kweedike okanye amatye angekho nzulu olwandle kunye neengqimba zamatye ezingaguqukiyo ezibizwa ngokuba zii-laccoliths. Kwakhona kukwakhiwa kweziseko, iiparapets kunye neengubo. Uninzi lwamanqanaba abekwe kwisiganeko esinye. Ezinye ziyancipha kwaye zibe buthathaka njengoko zipholile, zitofa i-magma amaxesha amaninzi. Zihlelwa njengezinto ezidibeneyo okanye ezidibeneyo ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwamatye oludibanisayo.

inkwili yentaba-mlilo

Intaba-mlilo kwinkwili-manzi ibangelwa ziintaba-mlilo zaselwandle. Ngaphantsi kwamanzi, iigesi kunye ne-lava zisebenza ngendlela efanayo neentaba-mlilo emhlabeni. Ukongezelela, ihluke kulo mva kuba ikhupha amanzi amaninzi kunye nodaka. iziganeko zangaphantsi kwamanzi nceda ukwenza iziqithi ezincinci kumbindi wolwandle, ezinye zisisigxina kunye nezinye ezithi ngokuthe ngcembe ziphele phantsi kwesenzo samaza.

Iyenzeka ikakhulu kwimimango ephakathi elwandle nakwezinye iindawo apho intshukumo yetectonic iphezulu, apho iipleyiti ziyahlukana ukuze zenze iintanda okanye iimpazamo. Ilava ekhutshiweyo inamathela emacaleni, inceda ukusabalalisa umgangatho wolwandle.

Iyintoni imiphumo yokudubula kwentaba-mlilo?

iintaba-mlilo ezidubulayo

umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo unako zibangela ukungena, iinyikima, iivent hydrothermal kunye nobusika bentaba-mlilo. Ukukhutshwa kwerhasi nothuthu kuchasene nemozulu yoMhlaba, kwaye kuthathe inxaxheba koko kubizwa ngokuba kukutshintsha kwemozulu. Ingcolisa umoya kwindawo ekufutshane nentaba-mlilo kwaye isasazeka emahlathini nakwiifama ngeemvula. Isiphumo asisoloko sibi, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha umlotha ogciniweyo utyebile kwiiminerali, okwenza umhlaba ube nemveliso ngakumbi.

Nangona ingenzeki rhoqo njengeenyikima nemozulu, intaba-mlilo inokuba yingozi. Xa isenzeka ngaselwandle. inokuvelisa iinyikima, ukudilika komhlaba, imililo kunye neetsunami. Ibeka ubomi kunye nezinto eziphathekayo zabantu abahlala kwiindawo ezinentaba-mlilo emngciphekweni.

Bamalunga ne-1.000 XNUMX abantu abafa nyaka ngamnye kwiintlekele zentaba-mlilo, ngokutsho kwentlangano yeZizwe Ezimanyeneyo enikela uncedo. Ezona zizathu ziphambili kukuhamba kwepyroclastic, udaka, itsunami okanye amaza. Abanye abaninzi baye bachatshazelwa kukukhutshwa kweegesi ezinetyhefu nothuthu.

Ukubaluleka kwentaba-mlilo

Intaba-mlilo ikhokelela ekwakhekeni kwamatye. Imagma ekhutshiweyo iyaphola kwaye yomelele ngokwamanqanaba namaxesha ahlukeneyo. Isantya apho ipholisa ngayo iya kugqiba ukubunjwa kweentlobo zamatye ezifana ne-basalt, i-obsidian, i-granite okanye i-gabbro. Amatye adibana ne-magma anganyibilika nayo okanye achatshazelwe yi-metamorphism yoqhagamshelwano.

Abantu baye basebenzisa amatye entaba-mlilo kunye neentsimbi ezikuwo ukususela kumaxesha amandulo. Namhlanje, zisetyenziswa njengento ekrwada yokuvelisa izinto zokwakha. Kwakhona kwishishini lezonxibelelwano, zisetyenziswa njengamacandelo ekwenziweni kweefowuni eziphathwayo, iikhamera, oomabonakude kunye neekhompyuter, kubandakanya izithuthi.

umsebenzi wentaba-mlilo kwakhona isenza i-aquifers nemithombo, kunye nomthombo ogqwesileyo wamandla e-geothermal, enokusetyenziswa ukwenza umbane kunye nobushushu. Kwamanye amazwe, iintaba-mlilo, imithombo eshushu kunye nodaka lwentaba-mlilo ziyakhuthazwa njengendawo yokukhenketha ngokusekwe kwiimpawu zazo zejoloji. Oku kungenisa imali eninzi yoqoqosho kuluntu olungqongileyo.

Ndiyathemba ukuba ngolu lwazi unokufunda ngakumbi malunga ne-volcanism kunye neempawu zayo.


Umxholo wenqaku uyabambelela kwimigaqo yethu imigaqo yokuziphatha yokuhlela. Ukuxela impazamo cofa apha.

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