Makungwa enyika

makungwa enyika

Kunyangwe hazvo mvura dzese dzepanyika dzakanyatsofanana, munhu akapatsanura mvura idzi kuita makungwa nemakungwa zvinoenderana nehunhu hwemvura imwechete nenzvimbo yenzvimbo. Nenzira iyi, zvinokwanisika kuronga zviri nani zvipenyu, zviwanikwa uye geography. Kune akawanda makungwa enyika mhiri kwemakungwa manomwe aifungidzirwa kuve echinyakare. Chimwe nechimwe chazvo chine hunhu hwacho uye kune mamwe akakura kupfuura mamwe.

Muchikamu chino tichaudza iwe pamusoro pemakungwa akasiyana epasi uye hunhu hwavo hukuru.

Makungwa enyika

makungwa enyika nemhuka

Nyanza ndiyo inogara zviuru nezviuru zvezvipenyu nepakati nepakati panofamba ngarava. Mhando yavo yakakura, yakakura kwazvo kupfuura pamusoro penyika, uye vachiri nezvakavanzika zvakawanda. Makungwa uye ari padyo nemashefu ekumakondinendi. Iyo pasherefu pasherufu ndipo panowanikwa zvihombe zviwanikwa zviwanikwa uye zvipenyu zvakasiyana. Inzvimbo iri padyo nemakondinendi sekuratidzwa kweshoko rayo.

Mazhinji ezvisikwa zvinogara mupasi redu ari mumakungwa epasi. Zvakare, zvinopesana nekutenda kwakakurumbira, iwo mapapu echokwadi epasi. Kune vanhu, idzi inzvimbo dzekutandara, varaidzo uye kufungisisa. Inoenderera asi isingaperi sosi yemvura inogona kusvika kudzimba kumatunhu mazhinji epasi. Nekuda kwekuredza, ivowo chinhu chakakosha kune chikafu chenyika. Iwo zvakare hwaro hwezviitiko zvevashanyi uye vaunza mabhenefiti mazhinji kune nyika sedzedu.

Dai isu taive nemakungwa epasi akapatsanurwa nekondinendi, isu tine runyorwa rwakadai.

  • Europe: Adriatic, Baltic, White, English Channel, Cantabrian, Celtic, Alboran, Azov, Barents, Friesland, Ireland, Marmara, North, Aegean, Ionian, Mediterranean, Nhema uye Tyrannian.
  • America: Argentine, Hudson Bay, Beaufort, Caribbean, Chilean, Cortés, Ansenuza, Bering, Chukotka, Grau, Greenland, Labrador, Sargasso neGreat Lakes.
  • Asia: Yero, ChiArabhu, Chena, Caspian, Andaman, Aral, Bhendi, Bering, Celebes, South China, East China, Philippines, Japan, Okhotsk, East Siberia, Sulu, Inland Seto, Kara, Laptev, Vakafa neRed.
  • Africa: Alboran, Arabian, Mediterranean uye Red.
  • Oceania: Kubva kuArafura, Kubva kuBismarck, Kubva kuCoral, Kubva kuPhilippines, Kubva kuHalmahera, Kubva kunaSoromoni, Kubva kuTasmania, Uye Kubva kuTimor.

Iwo mashanu makungwa akakurisa pasirese

Gungwa reCaribbean

Nekuwedzera, pane runyorwa rwe5 makuru makungwa munyika. Izvi ndizvo zvinotevera:

  1. Gungwa reArabia ne 3.862.000 km²
  2. Maodzanyemba eChina Gungwa ne 3.500.000 km²
  3. Gungwa reCaribbean ne 2.765.000 km
  4. Gungwa reMediterranean ne 2.510.000 km²
  5. Bering gungwa ne 2.000.000 km²

Tichaenda kududziro zvishoma zvishoma kuti ndeapi maitiro emakungwa makuru aya.

Gungwa reArabia

Iichifukidza nzvimbo inosvika mamirioni mana emakiromita, Gungwa reArabia ndiro gungwa rakakura kwazvo pasi rese. Iyo inozivikanwa zvakare seGungwa reOman uye Gungwa reArabia. Inowanikwa muIndia Ocean. Ine kudzika kwe angangoita 4.600 metres uye ane mahombekombe muMaldives, India, Oman, Somalia, Pakistan neYemen.

Gungwa reArabia rakabatana neGungwa Dzvuku kuburikidza neBab-el-Mandeb Strait uye rakabatana nePersian Gulf kuburikidza neGulf of Oman.

Zvitsuwa zvakakosha ndezveLaccadive Islands (India), Masira (Oman), Socotra (Yemen) uye Astora (Pakistan).

Maodzanyemba eChina Gungwa

Kufukidza nharaunda yemamirimita mazana matatu emamirioni, iyo Gungwa reSouth China ndiyo yechipiri nzvimbo huru yegungwa pasi rose. Iyo inowanikwa kuAsia kondinendi, mazhinji acho ari zviwi izvo zvinogara zvichitaurwa nezvekupokana kwenzvimbo pakati penyika dzeAsia. Rimwe rematambudziko makuru rakatarisana negungwa iri kurasikirwa kwezvinhu zvipenyu zvakasiyana-siyana. Uku kurasikirwa kunokonzerwa nekuredza zvakanyanya uye tsika yevaAsia yekudya hove mbishi. Idzi nzvimbo dzakapfuma muhove dzese dzese uye dzinokanganiswa nekuwanda kwehove.

Iwe zvakare unofanirwa kufunga nezve yakashata chimiro senge kusvibiswa. Ngatisakanganwe kuti China ine imwe yeakaipisisa mweya kusvibiswa uye kurasa marara. Iko kusvibiswa kwemvura mumakungwa aya kwakanyanya kukwirira.

Gungwa reCaribbean

Kunze kwezvitsuwa zvegoridhe zvine jecha jena nemiti yemikokonati iri pamhenderekedzo, Gungwa reCaribbean nderimwe remakungwa akadzika kwazvo pasi rino, richisvika pakadzika kwemamita mazana manomwe nemakumi matanhatu nenomwe. Kubva pakuona kwemakungwa, iri rakavhurika gungwa rinopisa. Iyi ndeimwe yenzvimbo dzine hukuru hukuru hwezvinhu zvipenyu uye gungwa rakachena kwazvo. Nechikonzero ichi, yave imwe yenzvimbo dzinozivikanwa dzevashanyi pasirese. Gore negore, zviuru zvevashanyi vanoenda kuchitsuwa ichi gore rese.

Makungwa eSpain

makungwa eSpain

MuSpain tine 3 makungwa uye gungwa rinogumira peninsula. Tine Gungwa reMediterranean, Gungwa reCantabrian, Gungwa reAlboran uye Atlantic Ocean.

Gungwa reMediterranean

Iyi nzvimbo yegungwa ine mvura yakawanda, inomiririra 1% yemvura yegungwa yakazara pasi rose. Vhoriyamu yemvura ari 3.735 miriyoni cubic kilometres uye paavhareji kudzika kwemvura kuri 1430 metres. Iyo ine hurefu hwakazara hwemakiromita 3860 uye nzvimbo yakazara ye2,5 miriyoni mativi emakiromita. Yese aya emvura anoita kuti zvikwanise kushambidza matatu peninsula kumaodzanyemba kweEurope. Aya peninsula ndiyo Iberia Peninsula, iyo Peninsula yeItaly uye iyo Balkan Peninsula. Inogezawo muAsia peninsula inozivikanwa seAnatolia.

Zita reMediterranean rinobva kuvaRoma vekare. Panguva iyoyo yainzi "Mare nostrum" kana "Gungwa Redu". Zita rekuti Mediterranean rinobva kuLatin medi terraneum, zvinoreva kuti pakati penyika. Iri zita rakatumidzwa nekuda kwemavambo enzanga, nekuti ivo vaingoziva iyo nyika yakatenderedza ino nzvimbo yegungwa. Izvi zvinoita kuti vafunge kuti Mediterranean ndiyo nzvimbo yepasi.

Alboran Gungwa

Izvi zvinogona kuve chinhu chikuru chisingazivikanwe muSpanish mvura, pamwe nekuda kwenzvimbo yayo diki ichienzaniswa nedzimwe mvura. Gungwa reAlboran rinoenderana nenzvimbo yekumadokero kweGungwa reMediterranean uye rakareba makiromita mazana matatu kubva kumabvazuva kusvika kumadokero. Iyo yakareba upamhi kubva kuchamhembe kusvika kumaodzanyemba makiromita zana nemakumi masere. Iyo yepakati kudzika ndeye 180 metres.

Gungwa reCantabrian

Gungwa reCantabrian rakareba makiromita mazana masere uye rine hudzamu hwakanyanya hwemamirioni 800. Iyo yepamusoro tembiricha yemvura inochinja kubva ku11ºC muchando kusvika 22ºC muzhizha. Atlantic Ocean inoshambidza kuchamhembe kwemahombekombe eSpain uye yakanyanyisa kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero kweAtlantic mhenderekedzo yeFrance. Imwe yehunhu hweGungwa reCantabrian ndiyo mhepo ine simba inopfuura pamusoro payo, kunyanya kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumadokero. Kwakatangira aya mauto kwakaitika muBritish Isles neNorth Sea.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda pamusoro pemakungwa akasiyana epasi uye maitiro avo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako