Mafashamo muChina

kukuvara scenario

Nekuda kwekushanduka kwemamiriro ekunze, mamiriro ekunze akanyanyisa akadai semafashamu ari kuitika nekuwanda uye kusimba. The mafashamo mu china vari kuwedzera zvinoshamisa. Vakatokonzera kukanganisa kwehupfumi kwakawanda uye zvakakonzera kufa kwakawanda mumakore achangopfuura. Kuti vaite izvi, maChina akaronga dzimwe nzira dzokukwanisa kumisa aya mafashamo anouraya.

Naizvozvo, isu tichakumikidza chinyorwa ichi kuti tikuudze zvese zvaunoda kuti uzive nezve mafashama muChina, kukuvadzwa kwavanokonzera uye ndeapi matanho nemazano anoitwa nehurumende.

Mafashamo muChina

mafashamo mu china

Kusimukira kunoshamisa kweChina kwekukura kwemadhorobha mumakumi emakore achangopfuura, pamwe chete neyakasiyana geological uye mamiriro ekunze, kwakagadzira musanganiswa unouraya wemafashama emumaguta achikonzera mamirioni evafi. mazana ezviuru zvekufa uye kurasikirwa kukuru kwehupfumi. Matanho akati wandei akatorwa kugadzirisa mafashamu aya. Ndezvipi uye ndezvipi migumisiro yazvo? muchinyorwa chinotevera.

Kubva 1949, anopfuura makumi mashanu mafashamo makuru nekuda kwemadutu, madutu kana mafungu akanganisa nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzenharaunda yeChinese.. Zviitiko izvi zvakaita kuti hurumende igadzire zvirongwa zvekudzivirira kuderedza kurasikirwa kwevanhu uye zvinhu, kuyananisa mukuita hukama pakati pemafashama uye budiriro yehupfumi.

Nhoroondo ine rupo kana zvasvika kune njodzi dzine chekuita nemafashamu. Semuenzaniso, muna 1931, Wuhan akazadzwa nemvura kwemazuva anopfuura 100 uye mafashamo akasiya vanhu vanopfuura 780 000 vasina pekugara uye akauraya 32 600. Mamwe mafashamo akaipisisa akaitika murwizi rweHan muna 1983, akauraya vanhu vanopfuura 870 uye akanyudza guta reAnkang. 8 metres pasi pegungwa.

Kubva 2000, China yakasangana nemafashamu makuru kamwechete pamakore maviri ega ega. Zvimwe zvezviitiko zvinonyanya kuzivikanwa zvinosanganisira mafashamo aChikunguru 2003, apo dutu risati ramboitika rakarova Nanjing, richikonzera kunaya kwezuva nezuva kweanopfuura 309 mm - kanenge kaviri mvura yegore negore pakati peChile - kwemazana evakafa, pamwe nevanodarika miriyoni imwe.

Muna Chikunguru 2007, Chongqing naJinan vakarohwa nerimwe remadutu makuru mumakore zana, kuuraya vanhu zana nevatatu, uye muna 103, Sichuan yakasiya vanhu vanodarika 2010 800.000 vasina pekugara uye vakauraya vanhu zana nemakumi mashanu. Iyo data inoratidza kuti ingangoita 150% yemafashamo haaitike kumaruwa, asi mumaguta.

Panguva ino, nyanzvi dzemadhorobha dzinoziva kuti maguta emazuva ano haana kusimba zvakakwana kuti akwanise kutsungirira kunaya kwemvura uye vanoti njodzi “yepakati” ingangononotsa kuvandudzwa kweguta kwemakore makumi maviri.

Matanho ekudzivirira mafashama muChina

kukuvara kwemafashama

Mafashamo emumaguta anowanzo kukonzera kukuvadzwa kwakawanda uye kukanganisa vanhu vazhinji, uye kukuvadzwa nekukuvadzwa kunoenderana nekukura kweguta, saka njodzi dzinowedzera gore rega-rega sezvo maguta anofambira mberi, izvo zvinotonyanya kunetsa kana zvichigona kushivirirwa. Kuisa pangozi kugadzikana kwese kwehupfumi hwemagariro ematunhu anogarwa nemakumi kana mazana emamiriyoni evanhu.

Kupedza nyaya inosuruvarisa iyi, muna 2003 Bazi rezvemvura reChinese rakakurudzira hurumende yepakati kuti itore danho pamusoro penyaya iyi, zvichikonzera shanduko kubva pagwaro risingashande rekudzora mafashama kuenda kugwaro rekudzivirira mafashama.

Izvi zvakakonzera kudzorwa kwemabasa ekubudirira munzvimbo yemafashamo, kugadzirwa kwezvirongwa zvekudzivirira uye nhevedzano yezviyero zvekuvimbisa kuchengetedzwa kweruzhinji. Nekudaro, zvinofungidzirwa kuti mazana matatu nemakumi mashanu neshanu emaguta mazana matanhatu nemakumi mana nemaviri uko kutonga mafashama ndiro basa guru -355% - shandisa maitiro ekudzora mafashama akaderera pane ayo akaiswa nehurumende yepakati.

Mumakore achangopfuura, China yakaunza pfungwa ye "kutarisira njodzi" uye yakurudzira mitemo mitsva. Naizvozvo, kuti ibve pakuvimba nematanho ekudzikisa kukuvadzwa kwemafashamu kuenda kukuenzanisa zvimiro uye zvisiri zvemaitiro, Bazi rezvemvura rakagadzira National Flood Management Strategy muna 2005.

Iyo inonzi "China Flood Control Strategy" inogona kutsanangurwa zviri nyore se: hurumende yeChina inosarudza kutonga kwemafashama zvichienderana nenjodzi, ichisimbisa nhanho dzisiri dzezvimiro, kunyanya zvekutonga, zvehupfumi, tekinoroji uye zvedzidzo (senge centralized sarudzo dzekuita sarudzo, kudzivirira. masisitimu, hurongwa hwekudzikisa njodzi uye inishuwarenzi yekudzora mafashama) uye kufambisa kuita kwezvirongwa zvekushandisa zvimiro, senge. kusimbaradzwa kwemadhamu, kudzora mwero wenzizi uye kuvakwa kwemadhamu, kuwana zvikomborero zvizere uye zvenguva refu.

Pfungwa dzakakosha

kukuvara kwemafashama muChina

Iwo matatu ehunyanzvi mabasa e'mafashama 'management' ndeaya:

  • Vakai zvirongwa zvekuchengetedza mvura kuderedza njodzi nemazvo. Iyo hombe yeThree Gorges Dam chirongwa chinomira pachena muchirongwa ichi.
  • Dzora zviitwa zvevanhu kuderedza kukuvadzwa kwemafashama muchikamu chinogadzirwa.
  • Kushandiswa kuri nani kwemvura yemafashama uye kushandisa zviwanikwa zvemvura zvasara.

Kuti iite chirongwa ichi, hurumende yeChina yakaratidza musimboti wetsigiro yekufambira mberi kwesainzi uye tekinoroji, kuve nechokwadi chemari yakakwana uye kushamwaridzana kuderedza njodzi. Chekupedzisira, kushandisa mafashama asingadzivisiki emumaguta kugadzirisa kushomeka kwemvura kunokonzerwa nekukasira kwekukura kwemaguta muenzaniso wakanaka wezano reChina rekusangoda kuderedza mafashamo nekukanganisa kwawo, asiwo kutsvaga kuwana purofiti kubva kunjodzi idzi dzechokwadi.

 

Senator Alejandro Navarro akataura kuti Chile inofanira kutevedzera muenzaniso weChina, "inonzwisisa kuti inofanirwa kutarisira masimba echisikigo kuburikidza nehurongwa hwakakwana hwekuti, pamusoro pekuvaka madhamu nemamwe mabasa, inoteerera kudzidzisa vanhu uye kuita zvirongwa zvekuderedza uye zvimwe. zviyero. »

Mumiriri weparamende akawedzera kuti: "Hapana mafashama anotarisirwa pano uye kune humbowo hwakawanda hweizvi, sezvakaitika muPapen Canal mwedzi mishomanana yapfuura, umo hapana chakaitwa kudzora mvura. Mvura yakanaya, iyo yakaita kuti mugero ufukidze uye uuraye. Mazana evanhu, kutanga Hurumende inofanira kuripa mhuri dzozoisa hurongwa hwekuti nhamo yerudzi urwu irege kuitika zvakare,” akapedzisa.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve mafashama muChina uye tenda nekuaita.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako