Gomo Merapi

gomo reMerapi volcano

Mount Merapi igomo rinoputika riri muCentral Java, Indonesia, anenge makiromita makumi matatu kuchamhembe kweYogyakarta, guta iri rine vanhu vanopfuura zviuru mazana mashanu. Inotaridzwa seimwe yemakomo anoputika zvakanyanya pasi rose, kunyanya nekuti iri munzvimbo yekudzikisa. Uyezve, ndiro rinonyanya kushanda pamakomo ese eIndonesia.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezveMount Merapi, ndeapi maitiro, kuputika uye kukosha.

Mhando huru

gomo merapi

Gunung Merapi, sekuzivikanwa kwainoitwa munyika yayo, inorondedzerwa se stratovolcano kana composite volcano ine chimiro chakaumbwa kubva mumabota anoyerera akadzingwa pamusoro pemamiriyoni emakore. Global Volcanic Activity Programme inoti iri pamamita 2.968 pamusoro pegungwa, kunyange zvazvo United States Geological Survey ichitaura nezve 2.911 metres. Zviyero izvi hazvina kururama, nokuti kuramba kuchiitika kwegomo rinoputika kuchazvichinja. Parizvino yakaderera pane kuputika kwakanyanya kwakaitika gore ra2010 risati rasvika.

Shoko rokuti "Merapi" rinoreva "Gomo reMoto." Iri pedyo nenzvimbo ine vanhu vakawanda, uye kusimba kwekuputika kwacho kwaita kuti ive nenzvimbo mumakore gumi emakomo anoputika, zvichiita kuti ive imwe yemakomo 16 akaongororwa zvakanyanya pasi rose. Pasinei nengozi, maJavanese akapfuma mune ngano uye ngano, mukuwedzera, kunaka kwavo kwakajeka kwechisikigo kwakashongedzwa pazasi pezvinomera zvakakora uye kumusha kune mhuka dzakawanda.

Kuumbwa kweGomo reMerapi

gomo rinoputika

Merapi iri munzvimbo inonyura apo ndiro yeIndia-Australia inonyura pazasi pendiro yeSunda (kana probe). A subduction zone inzvimbo inonyura ndiro pasi peimwe ndiro, zvichikonzera kudengenyeka kwenyika uye/kana kuputika kwemakomo. Zvinhu zvinoumba mahwendefa zvinosundira magma kure nemukati menyika, zvichigadzira kumanikidzwa kukuru, kumanikidzira kukwira kumusoro kusvika goko ratsemuka uye kuita gomo rinoputika.

Kubva pane geological point yekuona, vaMerapi ndivo vanhu vadiki kumaodzanyemba kweJava. Kuputika kwayo kunogona kunge kwakatanga makore 400.000 apfuura uye kubvira ipapo yave ichizivikanwa nemaitiro ayo echisimba. Mabota anooneka uye zvinhu zvakasimba zvakadzingwa pakaputika gomo rakaturikidzana muzvikamu uye pasi pakaoma, zvichigadzira chimiro chakafanana chegomo rinoputika. Kutevera kutaridzika kwayo, Merapi yakaramba ichikura panguva yePleistocene kusvika makore anenge 2,000 XNUMX apfuura kuputsika kwechivako chikuru kwakaitika.

Gomo reMerapi rinoputika

volcano muIndonesia

Iine nhoroondo refu yekuputika kwechisimba. Kwave kune kuputika kwe68 kubva muna 1548, uye mukati mekuvapo kwaro, kwave kune 102 yakasimbiswa kuputika munyika. Iyo inowanzosangana nekuputika kwakakura-kukura nekuyerera kwe pyroclastic, asi nekufamba kwenguva, vanowedzera kuputika uye vogadzira lava dome, denderedzwa-yakaita murwi.

Inowanzova nepundu diki makore ese 2-3 uye kuputika kukuru kwe10-15 makore. Pyroclastic inoyerera inoumbwa nemadota, gasi, pumice dombo nezvimwe zvimedu zvematombo zvine ngozi kudarika bota, nekuti zvinogona kudzika nekumhanya kwemakiromita anopfuura 150 paawa uye kusvika kunzvimbo dzakakura, zvichikonzera kukanganisa zvachose kana chikamu. Dambudziko reMerapi nderekuti iri mune imwe yenzvimbo dzine vanhu vakawanda muIndonesia, ine vanhu vanopfuura mamirioni makumi maviri nemana mukati mechikamu che24 km.

Kuputika kwakakomba zvikuru kwakaitika muna 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, uye 2010. Kuputika muna 1006 kwakanga kwakasimba kwazvo zvokuti kwaidavirwa kuti kwakatungamirira kumugumo woUmambo hweMataram, kunyange zvazvo pasina ufakazi hwakakwana hunotsigira kutenda uku. . . Zvisinei, gore ra2010 rakava gore rakaipisisa rezana remakore rechi353, richikanganisa zviuru zvevanhu, richiparadza mahekita ezvinomera nekuuraya vanhu mazana matatu nemakumi mashanu nevatatu.

Chiitiko ichi chakatanga muna Gumiguru uye chakagara kusvika Zvita. Yakaburitsa kudengenyeka kwenyika, kuputika kunoputika (kwete kumwechete), mafungu anopisa emakomo, kukoromoka kwemakomo, kuyerera kwe pyroclastic, makore madota egomo rinoputika, uye kunyange mabhomba emoto akaita kuti vanhu vangangosvika zviuru mazana matatu nemakumi mashanu vatize misha yavo. Pakupedzisira, yakava imwe yenjodzi dzinongoitika dzoga dzakakura muIndonesia mumakore achangopfuura.

Recent rash

Gomo rinoputika zvikuru muIndonesia rakaputika zvakare nemusi weMuvhuro, Nyamavhuvhu 16, 2021, richiburitsa nzizi dzemabota nemakore egasi kubva pasi pegomo pachitsuwa chine vanhu vakawanda cheJava, chinotambanuka makiromita matatu, mashanu (3,5 mamaira).

Kutinhira kwekuputika kwegomo kunonzwika makiromita akati kuti kubva kuGomo reMerapi, uye dota regomo rinoputika rakaputika kubva mugomo rinosvika mamita 600 (anenge mamita 2000). Madota akafukidza nharaunda dziri pedyo, kunyangwe mutemo wekare wekubuda waive uchiri kushanda padyo negomba, saka hapana vanhu vakafa vataurwa.

Director weYogyakarta Volcanic and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center, Hanik Humeda, akati uku ndiko kufema kukuru kubva kuMount Merapi sezvo zviremera zvakasimudza mwero wenjodzi muna Mbudzi gore rapfuura.

Nzvimbo yekumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero inofungidzirwa kuva inosvika 1,8 miriyoni cubic metres (66,9 miriyoni cubic tsoka) uye hurefu hunosvika 3 metres (9,8 tsoka). Yakazodonha zvishoma Muvhuro mangwanani, ichiputika pyroclastic inoyerera kubva kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero kwegomo kanenge kaviri.

Masikati, zvimwe zvidiki zviviri zvezvinhu zvepyroclastic zvakaputika, zvichidzika makiromita angangoita 1,5 (maira 1) kudivi rezasi kwakadziva kumadokero. Iri gomo re2.968-mita (9.737-foot) riri pedyo neYogyakarta, guta rekare rine huwandu hwemazana ezviuru munzvimbo yeJava Island metropolitan. Kwemazana emakore, guta rave riri musimboti wetsika dzeJavanese uye chigaro chemhuri yehumambo.

Merapi's alert status yaramba iri pachipiri pamazinga mana kubva payakatanga kuputika muna Mbudzi wapfuura, uye Indonesian Geological and Volcanic Hazard Mitigation Center haisati yasimudza zvisinei nekuwanda kwezviitiko.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve Mount Merapi uye maitiro aro.


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