Matanda emuchadenga

Atmosphere

Kwayaka: https://bibliotecadeinvestigaciones.wordpress.com/ciencias-de-la-tierra/las-capas-de-la-atmosfera-y-su-contaminacion/

Sezvatakaona mune yapfuura posvo, iyo Planet Pasi Iyo ine akawanda emukati uye ekunze akaturikidzana uye inoumbwa neane mana subsystems. Iyo matanda ePasi ivo vaive mune yepasi peiyo geosphere. Kune rimwe divi, isu taive iyo biosphere, iyo nzvimbo yePasi apo hupenyu hunokura. Iyo hydrosphere yaive chikamu chePasi pane mvura iripo. Isu tinongova nedzimwe diki diki repasi, muchadenga. Ndeapi matanho emuchadenga? Ngationei.

Mhepo yakatenderera ndiyo rukoko rwemagasi akakomberedza Nyika uye ane mabasa akasiyana siyana. Pakati pemabasa aya inyaya yekugara kwehuwandu hweokisijeni inodiwa kuti urarame. Rimwe basa rakakosha rine mhepo yezvinhu zvipenyu kutichengetedza kubva kumwaranzi yezuva nekunze kwekunze kubva muchadenga senge meteorite diki kana maasteroid.

Kuumbwa kwemuchadenga

Iyo mhepo yakaumbwa nemagasi akasiyana munzvimbo dzakasiyana. Inonyanya kuumbwa ne senitrogen (78%), Asi nitrogen iyi haina kwayakarerekera, ndiko kuti, tinoifema asi hatisi kuishandisa kana kuishandisa chero chinhu. Zvatinoshandisa kurarama ndizvo okisijeni inowanikwa pa21%. Zvese zvinhu zvipenyu papasi, kunze kweaanaerobic zvipenyu, zvinoda oxygen kuti igare. Chekupedzisira, iyo mhepo ine yakadzika kwazvo yevasungwa (1%) kubva kune mamwe magasi akadai semhute yemvura, argon, uye carbon dioxide.

Sezvatakaona muchinyorwa pamusoro kumanikidzwa kwemuchadenga, mweya unorema, uye nekudaro, kune mweya wakawanda muzvikamu zvezasi zvemuchadenga nekuti mweya unobva kumusoro unosundira mweya pazasi uye wakanyanya kuwanda pamusoro. Imhaka yeizvozvo 75% yehuremu hwese hwedenga iri pakati pepasi penyika nemakiromita gumi ekutanga mudenga. Sezvo isu tichikura mukukwirira, mhepo inoita seyakarembera uye yakatetepa, zvisinei, hapana mitsara inoisa mucherechedzo wakasiyana wedenga remhepo, asi asi kurongeka nemamiriro anochinja. Mutsara waKarman, angangoita makiromita zana kukwirira, inoonekwa sekupera kwemuchadenga wepasi uye kutanga kwemuchadenga.

Ndeapi matanho emuchadenga?

Sekutaura kwatamboita, patinenge tichikwira, tiri kusangana nematanho akasiyana ane mhepo yemuchadenga. Imwe neimwe ine kuumbwa kwayo, kuwanda uye basa. Iyo mhepo ine matanda mashanu: Iyo troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere uye exosphere.

Zvidimbu zvemuchadenga: Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, uye exosphere

Materu emuchadenga. Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Troposphere

Chikamu chekutanga chemuchadenga ndicho troposphere uye ndiyo iyo padyo nepasi uye nekudaro, iri mune iyo dura iyo yatinorarama. Inotambanuka kubva pamwero wegungwa kusvika kune gumi kusvika gumi kusvika gumi pakiromita. Iri mu troposphere umo hupenyu hunokura pasirese. Beyond iyo troposphere mamiriro usatendere kukura kwehupenyu. Iyo tembiricha uye kumanikidza kwemuchadenga kuri kudzikira mu troposphere sezvo isu tichiwedzera kukwirira matiri.

Mamiriro ekunze emamiriro ekunze sezvatinozviziva anoitika mu troposphere, nekuti kubva ipapo makore haakure. Izvi zviitiko zvemamiriro ekunze zvinoumbwa nekupisa zvisina kuenzana kunokonzerwa nezuva mumatunhu akasiyana epasi. Izvi zvinokonzeresa iyo convection yemafungu uye mhepo, izvo zvinofambidzana neshanduko mukumanikidza uye kudziya, zvinopa dutu rine simba. Ndege dzinobhururuka mukati me troposphere uye sezvatakadoma kare, kunze kwetroposphere hakuna makore anogadzira, saka hakuna mvura kana madutu.

Troposphere uye meteorological zviitiko

Mamiriro ekunze anoitika mu troposphere matinogara. Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Muchikamu chepamusoro che troposphere isu tinowana muganho wedenga unonzi tropopause. Mune ino chikamu chemuganho, tembiricha inosvika yakadzikama kwazvo mashoma kukosha. Ndicho chikonzero nei masayendisiti mazhinji achidana iri dura se "Thermal rukoko" Nekuti kubva pano, mhute yemvura iri mu troposphere haigone kumuka mberi, sezvo yakavharirwa kana ichichinja kubva pamhute kuenda kuchando. Kana isiri yeiyo tropopause, nyika yedu inogona kurasikirwa nemvura yatiinayo sezvo ichipwa uye ichienda kunzvimbo yekunze. Iwe unogona kutaura kuti iyo tropopause chinhu chisingaonekwe chipingamupinyi chinochengetedza mamiriro edu akatsiga uye inobvumira mvura kuti igare iri mukati mokusvika.

Stratosphere

Kuenderera mberi nezvikamu zvemuchadenga, isu tave kuwana stratosphere. Inowanikwa kubva kunzvimbo yekumhara uye inotambanudza kubva pamakiromita gumi nemashanu pakureba kusvika pamakumi mashanu- makumi mashanu emakiromita Iyo tembiricha iri mu stratosphere yakakwira muchikamu chepamusoro kupfuura muchikamu chezasi sezvo sezvo ichiwedzera mukukwirira, inotora mamwe mwaranzi yezuva uye tembiricha yako inowedzera. Ndokureva, hunhu hwekupisa pakukwirira hwakapesana neiyo mune troposphere. Inotanga kugadzikana asi yakaderera uye sekukwira kunowedzera, tembiricha inowedzera.

Iko kunwiwa kwechiedza mwenje kuri nekuda kwe ozone rukoko iri pakati pe30 ne40 km kukwirira. Iyo ozone rukoko hapana chimwe chinhu kunze kwenzvimbo uko iko kusangana kwe stratospheric ozone kwakakwirira zvakanyanya kupfuura mune imwe nzvimbo yemuchadenga. Ozone chii inotidzivirira kubva kumwaranzi inokuvadza yezuvaAsi kana ozone ikaitika pamusoro penyika, yakasimba mhepo inosvibisa inokonzera ganda, mweya wekufema uye zvemwoyo zvirwere.

Ozone rukoko

Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Mu stratosphere hapana kana kufamba kune yakatwasuka divi remhepo, asi mhepo munzira yakatwasuka inogona kusvika kazhinji 200 km / h. Dambudziko nemhepo iyi nderekuti chero chinhu chinosvika kune stratosphere chakapararira mupasi rese. Muenzaniso weiyi maCFC. Aya magasi anoumbwa neklorini uye fluorine anoparadza ozone layer uye anopararira mupasi rese nekuda kwemhepo ine simba kubva ku stratosphere.

Pakupera kwe stratosphere ndiko iyo stratopause. Iyi inzvimbo yemuchadenga uko kwakanyanya kuwanda kweozone kupera uye iyo tembiricha inova yakasimba kwazvo (pamusoro pe 0 degrees Celsius). Iyo stratopause ndiyo iyo inopa nzira kune mesosphere.

Mesosphere

Ndihwo hutara hwemhepo yakatambanuka hunowedzera kubva pamakumi mashanu emakiromita kusvika kune anopfuura kana mashoma makiromita makumi masere. Hunhu hwekupisa mune mesosphere hwakafanana neiyo troposphere, nekuti inodzika kumusoro. Iyi nharaunda yemuchadenga, kunyangwe ichitonhora, inokwanisa kumisa meteorites nekumhanyira mudenga mavanotsva, nenzira iyi vanosiya zvisaririra zvemoto mudenga rehusiku.

Mesosphere inomisa meteorites

Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Iyo mesosphere ndiyo yakatetepa yakatetepa yemuchadenga, kubvira inongova ne0,1% yehuremu hwese hwemhepo uye mairi tembiricha inosvika -80 madhigirii inogona kusvika. Kuita kwakakosha kwemakemikari kunoitika mune ino dura uye nekuda kwekudzikira kwemhepo, mhirizhonga dzakasiyana dzinogadzirwa dzinobatsira chitundumusere pavanodzokera kuPasi, nekuti ivo vanotanga kucherechedza chimiro chemhepo yekumashure uye kwete chete bhureki remuchadenga. yengarava.

Pakupera kwemesosphere ndiko iyo mesopause. Ndiwo muganho wedenga unoparadzanisa mesosphere uye iyo thermosphere. Iyo ingangoita 85-90 km kumusoro uye mairi tembiricha yakagadzikana uye yakadzika kwazvo. Chemiluminescence uye aeroluminescence reaction inoitika munzvimbo ino.

Thermosphere

Ndiyo yakatetepa yakatetepa yemuchadenga. Inotambanuka kubva 80-90 km kusvika ku640 km. Panguva ino, panenge pasisina chero mweya wakasara uye zvidimbu zviripo mune ino dura zvakasanganiswa nemwaranzi yeultraviolet. Rukoko urwu rwunonziwo ionosphere nekuda kwekurovera kweion kunoitikira. Ionosphere ine pesvedzero huru pa kupararira kwemasaisai eredhiyo. Chikamu chesimba chakapepetwa nemutepfenyuri chakananga kuionosiyoni chinosanganiswa nemhepo ineiizon uye chimwe chinodzoserwa, kana kudzoserwa, chodzokera kumusoro kwepasi.

Ionosphere uye redhiyo mafungu

Iyo tembiricha mune iyo thermosphere yakanyanya kwazvo, inosvika kusvika kuzviuru zvemadhigirii Celsius. Zvese zvidimbu zvinowanikwa mu thermosphere zvakakwidzwa kwazvo nesimba kubva kumwaranzi yezuva. Isu tinoonawo kuti magasi haana kupatsanurwa zvakaenzana sezvinoitika kumatara apfuura emuchadenga.

Mune iyo thermosphere yatinowana magnetosphere. Ndiyo nharaunda yemuchadenga umo simba renyika rekudzivirira rinotidzivirira kubva kumhepo yezuva.

Exosphere

Iyo yekupedzisira layer yemuchadenga ndiyo exosphere. Iyi ndiyo yakatetepa yakatenderera kubva pamusoro penyika uye nekuda kwehurefu hwayo, ndiyo isingagumi uye nekudaro haina pachayo inoonekwa seyadhi yemuchadenga. Zvakawanda kana zvishoma zvinowedzera pakati pe600-800 km kukwirira kusvika pa9.000-10.000 km. Iyi nhete yemuchadenga ndiyo chii inoparadzanisa nyika kubva muchadenga uye mairi maatomu anopukunyuka. Iyo inoumbwa kazhinji nehydrogen.

Exosphere uye stardust

Hukuru huwandu hwe stardust huripo mune exosphere

Sezvauri kuona, zviitiko zvakasiyana zvinoitika muzvikamu zvemuchadengas uye vane akasiyana mabasa. Kubva kunaya, mhepo uye kumanikidza, kuburikidza neozone layer uye ultraviolet mwaranzi, yega yega denga remuchadenga rine basa rayo rinoita hupenyu pasi pano sekuziva kwedu.

Nhoroondo yemuchadenga

La mamiriro ekunze izvo zvatinoziva nhasi hazvina kugara zvakadaro. Kubva nyika payakaumbwa kusvika nhasi, mamirioni emakore apfuura, uye izvi zvakakonzera shanduko mukuumbwa kwemuchadenga.

Iwo wekutanga mhepo yakatenderedza pasi redu yakamuka kubva pakunaya kukuru uye kwenguva refu munhoroondo, inova ndiyo yakaumba makungwa. Kuumbwa kwemweya usati wavapo hupenyu sezvatinoziva kwakamuka kwaiumbwa kazhinji nemethane. Kare kumashure, apfuura makore anodarika 2.300 bhiriyoni, zvipenyu zvakapona pamamiriro aya aive zvipenyu methanojeni uye anoxics, ndiko kuti, ivo vaisada oxygen kuti vararame. Nhasi uno methanogens inogara mumatope emadhamu kana mudumbu remombe pasina oxygen. Nyika yaive ichiri diki uye zuva raipenya zvishoma, zvisinei, kusangana kwemethane mumhepo kwakange kuri zvakapetwa kanokwana mazana matanhatu pane zviripo nhasi nekusvibiswa. Izvo zvakashandurwa kuita greenhouse athari yakasimba zvakakwana kuti iwedzere tembiricha dzepasirese, nekuti methane inochengetedza yakawanda kupisa.

Methanogens

Methanogens yaitonga pasi apo chimiro chemuchadenga chaive neinoxic. Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html

Gare gare, nekuwedzera kwe cyanobacteria uye algae, nyika yakazadzwa neoksijeni uye ikashandura kuumbwa kwemuchadenga kusvikira, zvishoma nezvishoma, ikava izvo zvatinazvo nhasi. Kutenda kune plate tectonics, kurongedzwa patsva kwemakondinendi kwakabatsira mukuparadzirwa kwe carbonate kumativi ese ePasi. Uye ndosaka mamiriro ekunze anga achichinja kubva mudanho rekudzora kuita rinosanganisa. Iko kukosheswa kweoksijeni kwaitaridza yakakwira uye yakadzika misoro kusvika iyo kana zvishoma yakaramba iri pane yakasarudzika yevasungwa ye15%.

Primitive mhepo inoumbwa ne methane

Primitive mhepo inoumbwa ne methane. Kwayaka: http://pulidosanchezbiotech.blogspot.com.es/p/el-reino-monera-se-caracteriza-por.html


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Pedro akadaro

    Mhoroi, kana iyo thermosphere inosvika zviuru zvemadhigirii C. Zvinoitika sei kuti chitundumuseremusere chingadai chakapfuura napo?
    Ndeipi tembiricha mushure meiyo thermosphere?
    Ndatenda pamberi pemhinduro yako

  2.   LEONEL VENCE MURGAS akadaro

    Pedro .. hapana akambokwanisa kubuda!
    zvese inyaya inhema hombe ... tarisa mavhidhiyo eiyo iss kana yese yekunyepera ..
    Kana zvirinani izvozvi, tarisa iyo CGI mifananidzo yepasi, pakanga pasina kumbobvira paine pikicha chaiyo uye hapana munhu akamboona satellite ichitenderera ...

  3.   Apodhimo akadaro

    «Mu thermosphere tinowana magnetosphere. "Ndiyo nzvimbo yemuchadenga umo simba repasi rino rinotidzivirira kubva kumhepo yezuva."
    Ini ndinofungidzira kuti mumutsara uyu vanofanirwa kuisa magnetic field uye kwete simba rekuvhiringidza.
    gracias

  4.   Nah akadaro

    Ruzivo rwacho rwakanaka kwazvo uye rwakanyatsotsanangurwa… maita basa kwazvo… runobatsira zvikuru kwatiri vedu vanodzidza ☺

  5.   Nah akadaro

    Ndiri kuda kukorokotedza munhu / vanhu vanotibvumidza kuti tizvizivise isu nenzira yakajeka uye yakapusa. Ini ndinokurudzira zvikuru peji rino, rinobatsira kwazvo kune vedu vedu vanodzidza kukoreji. NDOTENDA ZVIKURU

  6.   Luciana Rueda Luna akadaro

    Zvakanaka iro peji rakanaka asi pane zvinhu zviri zvekunyepa asi zvinonyatsotsanangurwa ndatenda nerondedzero 😘😘😉😉😉

  7.   Luciana Rueda Luna akadaro

    Zvakanaka iro peji rakanaka asi pane zvinhu zviri zvekunyepa asi zvinonyatsotsanangurwa ndatenda nerondedzero 😘😘😉😉😉

  8.   Lucy akadaro

    Tichipindura Pedro, ngarava dzinogona kumira aya tembiricha nekuda kwekupisa nhovo
    inowanzo sanganisira phenolic zvinhu.

  9.   kirito akadaro

    ndiudze mubvunzo aber

  10.   Daniela BB😂 akadaro

    Aya mashoko akanaka kwazvo ℹ anogona kubatsira isu tese takafunda ndaifunga kuti pane mana materu uye pane mashanu 😂😂😂

  11.   rebeca melendez akadaro

    Ini ndinodzidza yakavhurika chikoro chepamusoro uye ruzivo rwakandibatsira zvakanyanya uye rwakanyatsotsanangurwa, ndatenda

  12.   Naomi akadaro

    Zvakanaka kwazvo, maita basa.

  13.   HECTOR MORENO akadaro

    Kunyengera kwakanyanya, zvese manyepo, shamwari, hwaro hwese hwedzidzo hwekunyepedzera haugone kana kubuda kuenda muchadenga, kufukidza-kwese, kuongorora Flat Earth uye kumuka.

    1.    christian roberto akadaro

      tarisa hector moreno ini ndinotenda musainzi asi vhura mibvunzo yako inopfuura fungidziro yako uye zvibvunze wega kuti nei nyika yakasikwa iyo dzidzo inemiganhu asi dai tisina iyo taitove tichitoona kuti pasi rakatsetseka kana kwete uye chokwadi chenyika ino Asi sezvo tisina hunyanzvi hwakadai izvozvi, haugone kupindura, iwe unoti isu hatina kukwanisa kusiya pasi nekuti munoti haisi yekuviga, ichokwadi, nekuti zvikasadaro, munhu angadai asina kutiudza chero chinhu, akashamisika ndokuti Kana ivhu rakati sandarara uye kubva ipapo rakatanga dzidziso yekuti kana tichigara mune rakatsetseka kana rakatenderedza pasi uye vakatipa mhinduro yakapusa, yakatenderera nekuti zvikasadaro dai raive rakatsetseka, munhu wese aigona kukwezva nesimba repasi uye nhanho yaizorasika pasi nekuti nekuti mune dzimwe nzvimbo kunenge kuri kutonhorera kupisa kwehusiku masikati uye rudzi irworwo rwechiyero runenge rwakaipa nekuti isu hatirarame saizvozvo asi kana pasi rikatenderera uye rakatenderedza kune ese epasi kutonhora kupisa uye hakuna munhu angavekukwezva kune imwechete poindi yemagineti uye ini ndine makore gumi nematatu chete ndave ndakamuka kweanenge makore mana anogona kupindura mubvunzo wako zvakanaka kana kusaguma: 13: v

  14.   Juan akadaro

    Handitende kuti chiuru chemadhigiri chinosvika mu thermosphere, sezvo mwedzi unotenderera pasi uchisvika anenge + -160 degrees haunzwisisike, uye mu mercury, iri padyo zvakanyanya nezuva, tembiricha yandinofunga ndinofunga inofamba ichitenderedza pa600 degrees 1000, saka hazvina musoro…. typo ini ndinofunga.

  15.   Edwing Rodriguez akadaro

    Mhoroi, maita basa neruzivo, ini ndinoda iro peji, rinogara richindibatsira nemabasa echikoro uye ruzivo rwacho runobatsira.
    Thanks 😊.

  16.   Lysander milesi akadaro

    Kupindura Juan. Tembiricha zvinoenderana nekuti zuva rinopenya here kana kuti kwete. Kutaura nezve imwe tembiricha ndiko kukanganisa kwauri kuita. Inosiyana zvakanyanya kana radiation yezuva ichisvika kana kwete. Semuenzaniso, kumhara kwemwedzi kunoitwa muchiedza chezuva, asi kutonhora kuri kutonhora.
    Reply with quote

  17.   judith akadaro

    Ini ndaida iyo, ruzivo rwacho rwakanaka uye kusvika padanho, maita basa kwazvo 🙂

  18.   judith herrera akadaro

    Ini ndaida iyo, ruzivo rwacho rwakanaka uye kusvika padanho, maita basa kwazvo 🙂

  19.   alejandro alvarez akadaro

    Mhoroi mose… !!!
    Ini ndiri mutsva kune ino saiti, ndinokutendai zvikuru.
    Ini ndanga ndichiverenga chinyorwa pamusoro peakasiyana siyana anokwanisa epasi uye mushumo wacho waitaridzika kunge wakazara uye wakakomba.Handina tarisiro yekuenderera mberi nekudzidza zvimwe ... kubva kuUruguay!
    Atte Alejandro * IRONI ALVAREZ. .. !!!