Tierra del Fuego

sango renyika yemoto

Hukuru uye hwakanyanya kusiyanisa, sezvinoreva zita, Tierra del Fuego, dunhu rediki reArgentina, kana risingaonekwe senyika yakanyanyisa. Iwo chaiwoiwo mugumo wenyika, kwete bedzi nemhaka yedaro asiwo nemhaka yokushaikwa kwekurukurirano nemhoteredzo. Uye ndezvekuti chitsuwa ichi, kunyangwe nhasi, hachigone kuwanikwa nemhepo chete. Iine maitiro akasiyana uye zvipenyu zvakasiyana-siyana.

Naizvozvo, isu tichakumikidza chinyorwa ichi kukuudza zvese zvaunoda kuziva nezve Tierra del Fuego, ndeapi maitiro ayo uye curiosities.

Mavambo uye nhoroondo yeTierra del Fuego

mudunhu reTierra del Fuego

Hunhu hwepanyama hweTierra del Fuego hwakasiyana. Mazhinji echikamu chekuchamhembe kwechitsuwa chikuru chakaumbwa nenzvimbo yechando, kunyanya madziva uye moraines. Hurefu huri pasi pe180 metres. Mhenderekedzo yeAtlantic uye Strait yeMagellan yakaderera.

Kusiyana neizvi, nzvimbo dzekumaodzanyemba nekumadokero dzechitsuwa chikuru uye zvitsuwa iwedzero yeAndes, ine nhongonya dzinopfuura 7.000 tsoka, kunyanya maitiro emakomo echando eSarmiento, Darwin uye Tierra del Fuego.

Kune sango rebeech rinodonha pakati pechitsuwa chikuru uye bani rekuchamhembe rakafukidzwa neuswa. Zvitsuwa izvi zvakawanikwa nemufambisi wengarava Fernando de Magallanes muna 1520 paakafamba nemugwara rine zita rake ndokuritumidza dunhu reTierra del Fuego.

Vafambi vakati wandei vakayambuka nzvimbo iyi, asi hazvina kusvika kusvika British Admiralty yaita ongororo yakazara yezvitsuwa zvese. pakati pe1826 na1836 vakaedza kuongorora kwakarongeka. Kwemakore 350 pashure perwendo rweMagellan, nzvimbo yacho yave ichigarwa nevanhu vayo pasina kupokana. MaIndia, Ona, Yahgan uye Alacaluf maIndia.

Pa "kuguma kwenyika," munharaunda yeTierra del Fuego yeArgentine archipelago, kune nhoroondo yakajeka yekugara kweEurope. Vasundwa nokutorwa kwendarama, oiri nenzvimbo huru dzine uswa, vaEurope vakaenda nechikepe kunharaunda iyi yokumaodzanyemba zvikurusa vane tariro yokuita mari.

Nhasi, maguta ekumaodzanyemba kweArgentina anobva pane iyi nhoroondo yakapfuma. Zvisinei, vanhu vokune dzimwe nyika vasati vauya, pakanga pane mamwe mapoka asingazivikanwi. MaYaghan (kana kuti Yamana), Alacalut, uye maOna akambotenderera kuburikidza nenzvimbo iyi isina vanhu uye kutsungirira mamiriro ekunze akaipa. Mhuka dzemusango nezviwanikwa zvemugungwa zvadzaitsamira pazviri zvakawana makwikwi mashoma.

Climate

Nyika yeMoto

Mamiriro ekunze eTierra del Fuego anotonhorera muchirimo uye kutonhora mumwaka wechando, paine musiyano wakakura wemvura inonaya gore negore kubva pa 180 inches (4.600 mm) muBahía Félix pachitsuwa cherenje cheChile kusvika masendimita makumi maviri muRío Grande, Argentina. Munzvimbo dziri pachena dzekumaodzanyemba nekumadokero, zvinomera zvinongogumira kune mosses nemakwenzi.

Mamiriro ekunze munzvimbo iyi haana kukodzera kugara. Iyo ndeye subpolar oceanic mamiriro ekunze (Köppen CFC mamiriro ekunze), ine nguva pfupi uye inotonhorera chirimo, yakareba uye inonaya nguva yechando: kuchamhembe kwakadziva kumabvazuva kunoratidzwa nemhepo ine simba, nepo kumaodzanyemba nekumadokero kune mvura shoma, uye nguva zhinji kune mhepo, mhute, uye kunyorova. Kune mazuva mashoma pasina mvura, chimvuramabwe, chimvuramabwe, kana sinou.

Mutsetse wechando unogara unotanga pa 700 m pamusoro pegungwa. Isla de los Estados iri makiromita 230 kumabvazuva kweUshuaia, ine 1.400 mm yemvura. Kumadokero kunowana mvura yakanyanya kunaya, 3.000 mm pagore.

Tembiricha inoramba yakafanana gore rose: muUshuaia, tembiricha muzhizha haipfuure 9 ° C, uye avhareji tembiricha munguva yechando ndeye 0 ° C. Snowfall inogona kuitika muzhizha. Zhizha rinotonhora uye rakanyorova rinobatsira kuchengetedza mazaya echando ekare.

Kumaodzanyemba kwechitsuwa kune yakajairika subantarctic tundra mamiriro ekunze, ayo anotadzisa miti kukura. Chikamu chemukati menyika chine mamiriro ekunze ekunze. Matunhu epasi ane mamiriro ekunze akafanana kumaodzanyemba kweTierra del Fuego iAleutian Islands, Iceland, Alaska Peninsula, uye Faroe Islands.

Miganhu uye huwandu hwevanhu veTierra del Fuego

penguin biodiversity

Tierra del Fuego, iyo inoenderana neAntarctica neSouth Atlantic, ndeyeimwe yematunhu makumi maviri nematatu eArgentina. Panguva imwe, ndeimwe yematunhu makumi maviri nemana akazvimiririra anoumba nyikaIyo zvakare imwe yenzvimbo makumi maviri neina dzemitemo yenyika, maererano neguta rayo guru Ushuaia uye guta rine vanhu vakawanda, chitsuwa chiri cheArgentina.

Patagonia, iri kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumaodzanyemba kweArgentina, inogara chitsuwa chikuru, gungwa uye nzvimbo yeAntarctic, inotambanuka kubva kuTierra del Fuego kuenda kuAntarctica, kusanganisira Staten Island, Falkland Islands, South Atlantic Islands uye Antarctic Peninsula. Triangle inoumbwa, mativi emeridian ari 74 ° W uye 25 ° W apex uye South Pole.. MuAmerica, dunhu rinoganhurana neSanta Cruz kuchamhembe, Chile kumadokero, Beagle Channel kumaodzanyemba, uye Chile kumaodzanyemba. Antarctica, dunhu zvakare rinoganhurana kumadokero kweChile, asi muganho hausati watemwa.

Kana iri yehuwandu hwevanhu, Darwin akapukunyuka nharaunda yakaoma uye akaita zviito zvakaoma, achiratidzira rudzi rwakasiyana mutsika iyi uye unhu hwayo hunozivikanwa, achivapa zita rokuti "ishe ane nhamo yenyika ino yakaipa."

Panzvimbo uye netsika dzakasiyana kubva kuYaghan, Ona vaive vanhu vaigara panyika. Vaive nemapoka maviri makuru: Hausch neSelk'nam. Paive nemapoka maviri mune yekupedzisira, imwe yaive munzvimbo yerenje kuchamhembe kweRwizi Moto, uye imwe yaive munzvimbo yekumaodzanyemba nemasango.

Kusiyana nevanhu vaiva mumahombekombe egungwa, vanhu ava vakanga vakakura uye vakararama vachivhima guanaco uye tuco-tuco (gonzo rinoshandisa uta nemuseve sechombo). Parizvino, Argentina, hausi kuzowona chero twunhu twemadzinza aya. Kupona mukona isingagoneki yepasi, iyo Yaghan, Alacalut uye Ona. vakaratidza kuva vanhu vakasimba uye vakasimba. Zvisinei, unhu uhwu hahuna kuvadzivirira pakuwanda kwezvirwere uye tsika dzokumwe.

Kuwanikwa kwezviwanikwa zvechisikigo nevaSpanish, uye gare gare nevamwe vagari vekuEurope, kwakaunza shanduko nekukurumidza kune idzi tsika dzenhoroondo. Chirwere cheEurope chakaparadza nhamba huru yevanhu vose vari vaviri, uye avo vakapukunyuka vakatarisana nechinetso chokukukurwa kwetsika.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve Tierra del Fuego uye maitiro ayo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
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