Ko meteorite yakatsvaira dinosaurs yakawira kupi?

uko meteorite yakawira iyo yakatsvaira dinosaurs

Kutsakatika kwemadinosaur kwakaitika makore angangoita mamirioni makumi matanhatu nematanhatu apfuura apo asteroid inozivikanwa se "Chicxulub" yakabonderana nePasi, zvichikonzera kutsakatika kwemarudzi akawanda. Zvisinei, nzvimbo chaiyo yezvakakanganiswa uye magumo ezvisaririra zvechinhu ichi chikuru chekudenga chinoramba chiri chakavanzika. Vanhu vakawanda vanoshamisika uko meteorite yakawira iyo yakatsvaira dinosaurs.

Muchikamu chino tichakuudza kuti meteorite yakatsakatika madinosaurs yakawira kupi uye maitiro ayo.

Chicxulub asteroid

meteorite huru

Sekureva kweYunivhesiti yeChile, kukanganisa kweiyo asteroid kwakakonzera chiitiko chakaipisisa chekuparadza kukuru paPasi, ne simba rinopeta ka50.000 XNUMX rechombo chenyukireya chiripo.

Hukuru hwekukanganisa hwaive hunoshamisa, nefungidziro ichiisa dhayamita yayo pakati pemakiromita gumi nemaviri negumi nemashanu, uye kumwe kutsvagisa kunyange kufungidzira kuti inogona kunge yakasvika makiromita makumi masere anokatyamadza. Sipidhi yayakadhumana nayo neNyika yaishamisawo. kufamba pasipidhi yemakiromita 20 pasekondi imwe neimwe, yakaenzana neinopeta 59 sipidhi yenzwi.

Kusvika kwechiitiko ichi chine njodzi kwakakonzera kutsakatika kwezvisikwa zvechinyakare zvinosvika makumi manomwe neshanu, zvisingasiyi chinhu kunze kwezvisaririra zvazvo zvakavigwa pasi pemarara. Hwakadaro hwaive ukuru hwekukanganisa uku zvekuti hwakachinja zvachose mafambiro ehupenyu hwepasi redu.

Ko meteorite yakatsvaira dinosaurs yakawira kupi?

dinosaur uye meteorite

Pakudzidza chiitiko ichi, vaongorori vakagumisa kuti nzvimbo yekukanganisa yaive muguta reChicxulub, riri paYucatan Peninsula muMexico, nekudaro zita rayo. Maererano neNational Geographic, izwi rokuti "Chicxulub" rinobva mumutauro weMayan uye, zvinoshamisa, Inogona kushandurwa se "dhiyabhorosi muswe", "dhiyabhorosi flea" kana kunyange "nzvimbo inopisa nyanga."

Zvinoenderana nedzidziso dzesainzi, zvinotendwa kuti guta iri, rinogarwa nevanhu vashoma vanodarika zviuru zvina, ndiro raive honzeri yekuitika kweasteroid. Kufungidzira kweNASA kunoratidza kuti kukanganisa kwakakonzera gomba rakayera makiromita angangosvika 4.000 muhupamhi uye rakasvika kudzika kunosvika 180 metres.

Kwemamiriyoni emakore, kukura kwechiitiko ichi kwakaderera, zvichiita kuti zvisanyanya kuoneka nhasi. Kwakanga kusati kuri kutozosvikira kuma1980 apo fungidziro yakarongwa namasayendisiti Luis Álvarez naWalter Álvarez yakabuda pachena.

Gare gare, dzimwe nyanzvi dzakasimbisa uye pakupedzisira dzakabvumirana kuti iyi ndiyo yaiva nzvimbo chaiyo yechiitiko chinokosha. Nepo panogona kunge pasina gomba rinooneka, pane zvinoonekwa pasi pano izvo zvinoshanda seumboo hwekutaridzika kwaro.

Dr. Gary Kinsland, purofesa we geology paYunivhesiti yeLouisiana, ave achidzidza Chicxulub kubvira 1994. Paanotaura nezvenyaya iyi nevana vezera rechikoro, anoshandisa kuenzanisa kwakapfava: Fungidzira iwe wakaisa ndiro pamubhedha wako uye uifukidze namachira namagumbeze. Ndiro yaizongoonekwa seyakapinza zvishoma.

Kunyange zvazvo gomba guru ringave risisipo, kana iwe ukaongorora indentation mumubhedha wako, uchaona kuti ichiri kutarisana nemucheto wemudziyo uri pasi payo. "Kucherechedza uku kunotibvumira kuwana ruzivo pamusoro pechimiro chepasi," anotsanangura kudaro mutsvakurudzi. Zvinosuruvarisa, Hapana zvakasara zvemeteorite zvakawanikwa.

Pamusoro pezvo, NASA yakabata zvimwe zvisingaoneki kubva muchadenga zvakaratidza nzvimbo yekukanganisa: semicircular chimiro chakatsanangurwa se "chinenge chakakwana." Kucherekedza uku kwakaitwa neboka revatsvagiri vekutanga vaive pakati pevekutanga kupa Chicxulub senzvimbo yekukanganisa.

Munguva yekuongorora, masayendisiti akashamiswa nedata remagineti uye rinokwevera iro kambani yemafuta yeMexico yakambounganidza mukutsvaga kwayo mafuta. Idzi data rakaratidza kukura, kuumbwa kwedenderedzwa, iyo yavakange vaona seine kukanganisa crater. Kevin Pope, musayendisiti weNASA akabatanidzwa mukudzidza kweMayan archeology, akapa rumwe ruzivo nezve iyi inoshamisa yakawanikwa.

Mhedzisiro yeasteroid inosara haizivikanwi

meteorite crater

Chikamu chiduku chete chechinhu chikuru chomudenga ndicho chakakwanisa kurarama. Vatsvakurudzi vanosimbisa kuti zvidimbu zvakawanda zvakabviswa nechisimba panyika yedu, asi zvishoma chete zvakachengetwa kana kuti zvakaoma kuwana.

Zvinoenderana nefungidziro yavo, chimwe chikamu chechinhu chakapiswa panguva yekudhumhana, nepo zvidimbu zvakasara. Vakavigwa zvishoma nezvishoma mazana emamita pasi pepamusoro pemamiriyoni emakore..

Nekudaro, zvakasara zveasteroid zvinogona kuwanikwa muYucatán, kunyangwe muhuwandu hudiki. Ongororo ichangoburwa yakaburitswa mupepanhau reSainzi muna 2021 yakaratidza kuti vaongorori vakawana tumarara eguruva reasteroid mukati menzvimbo yekukanganisa. Chokwadi ichi chinogona kuverengerwa nekuvapo kweiridium, chinhu chesimbi chinowanikwa muasteroids, chiripo mugomba.

Zvinoenderana nechinyorwa ichi, iyo data iri pasi pekuongororwa yakafumura inooneka iridium anomaly mukati meiyo yakanyanya ring sequence yeChicxulub impact chimiro, iyo. Yakawanikwa kubva pachibhorani chakawanikwa panguva yeIODP-ICDP Expedition 364.

Yunivhesiti yeAustin yakatungamira rwendo rwemugungwa panguva iyo yavakafukunura matombo kubva kuYucatan seafloor crater core. Uku kuwanikwa kunokatyamadza kwaisanganisira kuzivikanwa kweiridium spikes iyo yakapa humbowo hwakakura mukufarira Chicxulub asteroid theory.

Zvimwe zvakawanikwa

Zvimwe zvakawanikwa zvakabuda mumakore apfuura izvo zvinotendwa kuti zvinogona kubva kuChicxulub kukanganisa. Munguva ichangopfuura, muna 2022, The New York Times yakaburitsa chinyorwa ichizivisa kufukunurwa kwemafossilized akasara mudhipoziti iri kuNorth Dakota, United States. Izvi zvakawanikwa zvinosimudza mukana wekuti zvimedu izvi zvingave zvakabatana neasteroid inokonzeresa chiitiko cheChicxulub.

Panguva yehurukuro neNASA, Robert DePalma, nyanzvi yezvakaitika kare ichitungamirira tsvakurudzo, akataura kuti zvakasara zvakawanikwa zvinogona kupa ruzivo rwakakosha pamusoro pemhando yechinhu ichi. Kunyange ichitendwa kuve asteroid, pane mukana wekuti inogona zvakare kuve comet.

Munguva iyoyo, akaratidza chivimbo mumuitiro unopfuurira wokuziva chinhu chisingazivikanwi, achiti: “Kana tangokwanisa kuziva chimiro chacho, pasina mubvunzo tichashamiswa nokuwana kwedu. Dzidziso yaDePalma inodzokera kune zvakasara zvedombo rakanyungudutswa rakabviswa zvine simba panguva yekukanganisa., zvichishandurwa kuita magirazi egirazi sezvaaitonhora zvishoma nezvishoma. Iyi spherules, maererano nenyanzvi, "yakagara mukati memuti resin, iyo yakashanda sevharopu yeamber inodzivirira, kuchengetedza mamiriro avo epakutanga." Zvakawanikwa naDePalma aive matombo asina kuchinjika akavharirwa mukati meaya magirazi magadzirirwo.

Ndinovimba kuti neruzivo urwu iwe unogona kudzidza zvakawanda nezve iyo meteorite yakatsakatika madinosaurs yakawira uye maitiro ayo.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
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