Zotsatira za chilala ku Spain

Malo osungira a Viñuela

Chilala ndichinthu chachilengedwe chomwe chimakhala ndi kuchepa kwa mvula yocheperako poyerekeza (yomwe ingakhale yachilengedwe m'deralo), chifukwa chake, kuchepa kwa madzi omwe alipo, m'madamu ndi m'madzi. Spain ikukumana, kutha 2017, ndi chilala chachikulu mzaka 20 zapitazi.

Kodi Spain ingatani kuti athetse vutoli?

Chilala choopsa kwambiri

chilala ku spain

Kusowa kwa mvula kukuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa malo osungira kumwera chakum'mawa komanso, modabwitsa, omwe ali kumpoto chakumadzulo. Mipata ili pafupi 30%, mfundo zomwe sizinawonekepo chiyambire 1990.

Madzi omwe awonongeka, osawerengera a mvula yomaliza, ili ndi mfundo 20 pansi poyerekeza zaka 10 zapitazi. Nyengo yaku Spain yakhala ikuwuma ndipo nthawi zonse imakhala youma, ndikumazizira kwa zaka zopitilira 3-4. Komabe, chilalachi ndi champhamvu kwambiri pazaka zoposa 20.

Mavutowa akusowa madzi amakhala osakhazikika m'mabeseni monga Miño-Sil, Segura, Júcar, Guadalquivir makamaka ku Duero, ndi pafupifupi 30% zaka zosakwana 10 zapitazo.

Potengera momwe madera aku Spain alili komanso madera, chilala ndichofala. Pachifukwa ichi, 75% ya madera aku Spain atha kukhala chipululu. Mu nthawi ya 1991-1995 panali kale chilala chofanana ndi ichi chotsika kwambiri.

Chilalachi chidachitika chifukwa cha mvula yochepa mu 2014 ndi 2016, momwe idagwa 6% kutsika kwapakati. Kuphatikiza apo, akasupe alibe mvula yocheperako ndipo maukonde opatsira anthu amataya pafupifupi 25% yamadzi.

Kuzinthu zonsezi tiyenera kuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa zokopa alendo pafupifupi pafupifupi madera onse aku Spain, zawonjezeka madera olimapo ulimi wothirira ndipo, chifukwa chakuchulukirachulukira kutentha, momwemonso kuchuluka kwa madzi kumasukanso.

Chaka chowuma kwambiri

madamu otsika

Chaka chamagetsi ichi chomaliza mu Okutobala chaka chino chakhala chowuma kwambiri. Madera obiriwira kwambiri ku Spain monga Galicia, kumpoto kwa Castilla y León, gawo lalikulu la Asturias ndi Cantabria nawonso achepetsa kwambiri mvula.

Madera owuma kwambiri mchaka mosakayikira ndi a Extremadura, Andalusia ndi Canaries. M'madera awa mvula sichidapitilira 75% yamtengo woyenera, ndikupanga kuti ukhale chaka chachisanu ndi chitatu ndi mvula yochepa kwambiri kuyambira 1981.

Chiyambireni chaka chatsopano chama hydrological ichi (2017-2018), zinthu zikuipiraipira. Pafupifupi kuchuluka kwa malita 150 pa mita mita imodzi yomwe imasonkhanitsidwa kuyambira Okutobala mpaka Novembala, ndi 63 yokha yomwe yasonkhanitsidwa. Ndiye kuti, 58% yocheperako.

Zotsatira za chilala

mansilla

M'madamu ambiri ku Spain midzi yatulukira yomwe inali pansi pa madzi chifukwa chotsika madzi. Mizinda iyi adamizidwa kuyambira ma 60, pakupanga madamu ambiri aku Spain. Ena mwa matauni ndi zipilala ndi mpingo wakale wa Santa Eugenia de Cenera de Zalima mu dziwe la Aguilar de Campoo (Palencia) ndi tawuni yakale ya Mansilla ku La Rioja.

Limodzi mwamavuto akulu omwe chilala chimayambitsa anthu ndi vuto la kupezeka. Kudula madzi ndikofunikira kuteteza zogwiritsa ntchito madzi kwa nthawi yayitali. Boma likuwonetsetsa kuti likuyesetsa kwambiri kupewa zoletsa madzi. Komabe, izi zikapitilira, anthu ena adzakhala ndi vuto ndi madzi.

Monga mukuwonera, kugwiritsa ntchito bwino madzi ndiimodzi mwazinthu zofunikira kwambiri mdziko lomwe limavutika ndi chilala. Kutaya 25% pamaneti opatsirana zonse ndi zinyalala zomwe sitingalole. Pofuna kupewa izi, anthu ayenera kuphunzitsidwa kuti azitha kugwiritsa ntchito bwino chuma chamtengo wapatali ichi komanso chosowa.


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