pulaneti ndi chiyani

dzuwa

Tikukhala m’dziko limene lili m’kati mwa mapulaneti ozungulira dzuŵa, lomwenso lazunguliridwa ndi mapulaneti ena. Komabe, pali anthu ena amene amadziwa bwino tanthauzo la pulaneti ndi chiyani. Mu zakuthambo ndi sayansi pali tanthauzo molingana ndi mikhalidwe ndi mapangidwe awo.

Choncho, m'nkhaniyi tikuuzani mwatsatanetsatane zomwe dziko lapansi liri, makhalidwe ake, mapangidwe ake ndi zina zambiri.

pulaneti ndi chiyani

mapulaneti onse

Pulaneti ndi thupi lakumwamba lomwe limazungulira nyenyezi yayikulu kwambiri kuti ikhale mu hydrostatic equilibrium (pakati pa mphamvu yokoka ndi mphamvu yopangidwa ndi phata lake). bwino izi imalola kuti ikhalebe yozungulira, kulamulira kanjira kake (Imaletsa zinthu zina kuti zisalowe m’njira yake) ndipo siitulutsa kuwala kwake, koma imaonetsa kuwala kwa nyenyezi zomwe imakoka.

Dziko Lathu, mofanana ndi mapulaneti ena XNUMX a mapulaneti ozungulira dzuŵa, limazungulira dzuŵa. Onsewa ali ndi mawonekedwe omwe amatanthauzira zinthu ngati "mapulaneti," koma amasiyana malinga ndi momwe alili padziko lapansi.

Mapulaneti amatha kukhala ndi zinthu zolimba komanso mpweya wowunjikana. Chinthu cholimba kwambiri ndi thanthwe lopangidwa ndi silicates ndi chitsulo. Mipweyayi imakhala makamaka haidrojeni ndi helium. Mapulaneti amenewa alinso ndi ayezi wamitundumitundu, wopangidwa ndi methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ndi madzi.

Kuchuluka kwa zinthuzi kumasiyana malinga ndi mtundu wa dziko. Mwachitsanzo, mapulaneti amiyala ngati Dziko Lapansi amapangidwa ndi miyala ndi zitsulo ndipo, mocheperapo, amakhala ndi mpweya. Mosiyana, mapulaneti a mpweya monga Jupiter kwenikweni amapangidwa ndi mpweya ndi ayezi.

Makhalidwe a mapulaneti

pulaneti ndi chiyani

Mapulaneti a solar system amagawidwa molingana ndi kapangidwe kake ndipo amatha kukhala:

  • dziko la miyala. Zomwe zimadziwikanso kuti "Earths" kapena "terrestrials", ndi zinthu zakuthambo zowundikika zopangidwa ndi miyala komanso zitsulo. Mapulaneti a Mercury, Venus, Earth, ndi Mars ndi mitundu ya miyala.
  • Dziko la gasi. Zomwe zimatchedwanso "Jovians", ndizinthu zazikulu zomwe zimazungulira mofulumira poyerekeza ndi Dziko lapansi. Mapulaneti amenewa ali ndi mpweya wokhuthala kwambiri umene umatulutsa mphamvu ya maginito yamphamvu, ndipo ali ndi miyezi yambiri. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus ndi Neptune onse ndi mapulaneti a mpweya.

Mapulaneti amagawidwanso molingana ndi malo awo patali ndi dzuwa ndipo akhoza kukhala:

  • dziko lamkati. Ndiwo mapulaneti oyandikana kwambiri ndi dzuwa, pamaso pa lamba wa asteroid. Ndi Mercury, Venus, Earth ndi Mars.
  • Mapulaneti akunja. Ndiwo mapulaneti akutali kwambiri ndi dzuwa, achiwiri ndi lamba wa asteroid. Iwo ndi: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus ndi Neptune.

Popeza Pluto idapezeka mu 1930, idawonedwa ngati pulaneti mpaka 2006, pambuyo pa mkangano waukulu wapadziko lonse lapansi, adaganiza zoyikanso Pluto ngati "planeti laling'ono" la solar system chifukwa silinakwaniritse zofunika kuziganizira. Limodzi mwa makhalidwe a pulaneti ndiloti alibe orbital ulamuliro (njira yake ilibe zinthu zina panjira yake, ili ndi ma satelayiti asanu okhala ndi mtundu womwewo wa orbit). Pluto ndi thambo laling'ono, lamiyala, la exoplanet chifukwa ndilotali kwambiri lakumwamba kuchokera ku dzuwa. Kuphatikiza pa Pluto, mapulaneti ena ang'onoang'ono adziwika, kuphatikizapo Ceres, Hemea, Makemake, ndi Eris.

Mapulaneti azungulira dzuwa

dziko lapansi ndi chiyani

Pali mapulaneti asanu ndi atatu m'dongosolo lathu la mapulaneti ozungulira dzuŵa, kuti achoke kufupi ndi dzuŵa mpaka kutali kwambiri:

  • Mercury. Ndilo pulaneti laling'ono kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, lomwe lili ndi miyala yamwala yofanana ndi Dziko Lapansi, ndipo maziko ake amatenga pafupifupi theka la Dziko Lapansi (kupanga mphamvu ya maginito). Ilibe ma satelayiti achilengedwe.
  • Venus. Ndi dziko lachitatu malinga ndi kukula kwake (kuchokera kuling'ono mpaka lalikulu), lili ndi m'mimba mwake mofanana ndi Dziko lapansi ndipo liribe ma satelayiti achilengedwe.
  • Dziko lapansi. Ndi dziko lachinayi pambuyo pa Venus ndipo lili ndi satelayiti imodzi yokha yachilengedwe: Mwezi. Ndilo planeti lokhuthala kwambiri pa mapulaneti ozungulira dzuŵa ndipo ndilo lokhalo lomwe lili ndi madzi pamwamba pake.
  • Mars. Ndilo dziko lachiwiri laling'ono kwambiri ndipo limatchedwanso "redplanet" chifukwa pamwamba pake ndi wofiira chifukwa cha iron oxide. Ili ndi ma satellite ang'onoang'ono awiri achilengedwe: Phobos ndi Deimos.
  • Jupita. Ndilo pulaneti lalikulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Ndi mpweya, wopangidwa makamaka ndi haidrojeni ndi helium, ndipo ili ndi ma satelayiti achilengedwe makumi asanu ndi limodzi mphambu asanu ndi anayi.
  • Saturn. Ndilo pulaneti lachiwiri lalikulu kwambiri (pambuyo pa Jupiter) ndipo ndilo planeti lokhalo lomwe lili ndi mapulaneti omwe ali ndi mphete ya mapulaneti (mphete ya fumbi ndi tinthu ting'onoting'ono tomwe timalizungulira). Ili ndi ma satelayiti 61 omwe apezeka, koma kuyerekeza kumapangitsa kuti onse akhale pafupifupi 200.
  • Uranus. Ndi dziko lachitatu lalikulu kwambiri ndipo lili ndi mpweya wozizira kwambiri pa mapulaneti ozungulira dzuwa. Mkati mwake mumapangidwa makamaka ndi ayezi ndi miyala, ndipo pali ma satellites achilengedwe makumi awiri mphambu asanu ndi awiri omwe apezeka.
  • Neptune. Ndilo dziko lachinayi lalikulu kwambiri ndipo lili ndi mawonekedwe ofanana ndi a Uranus, okhala ndi ayezi ndi miyala yambiri mkati mwake. Pamwamba pake ndi buluu chifukwa cha kukhalapo kwa mpweya wa methane. Idapeza ma satelayiti khumi ndi anayi.

Satellite zachilengedwe

Satellite yachilengedwe ndi thupi lakumwamba lomwe limazungulira nyenyezi ina (kawirikawiri pulaneti) ndikutsagana nayo munjira yake kuzungulira nyenyeziyo. Imadziwika ndi kukhala yolimba, yaying'ono kuposa nyenyezi yomwe imazungulira, ndipo imatha kukhala yowala kapena yocheperako. Mapulaneti ena akhoza kukhala ndi ma satelayiti angapo achilengedwe, omwe Amagwiridwa pamodzi ndi mphamvu yokoka.

Satellite yachilengedwe ya dziko lathu lapansi ndi Mwezi, womwe ndi gawo limodzi mwa magawo anayi a m'mimba mwake mwa dziko lapansi ndipo ndi mwezi wachisanu waukulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Mtunda wake wa orbital ndi kuwirikiza makumi atatu kukula kwa dziko lapansi. Mwezi umatenga masiku 27 kuti uzungulire Dziko Lapansi ndi kuzungulira pawokha, motero Mwezi womwewo umawonekera nthawi zonse kuchokera padziko lapansi.

Ma satellite achilengedwe ndi osiyana ndi ma satelayiti ochita kupanga. Chotsiriziracho chimapangidwa ndi anthu, ndipo chimakhalanso m'njira yozungulira chinthu chamlengalenga, pomwe chimakhala chozungulira ngati zinyalala zamlengalenga moyo wake wothandiza ukatha, kapena kusweka ngati chidutsa mumlengalenga pobwerera.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za dziko lapansi, mawonekedwe ake ndi mitundu ya mapulaneti omwe alipo.


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