Zamadzimadzi

petrogenesis

Lero tikambirana za imodzi mwa nthambi za geology zomwe zimayang'ana kwambiri za kuphunzira miyala, komwe idayambira, kapangidwe kake ndi thupi lake komanso kagawidwe kake ka nthaka. Nthambi iyi ya geology imatchedwa petrology. Mawu akuti petrology amachokera ku petro weniweni mwala umatanthauzanji komanso kuchokera ku logo tanthauzo la kafukufuku. Pali kusiyana ndi lithology yomwe imangoyang'ana miyala yomwe idaperekedwa. Mu petrology a petrogenesis. Imakhudza komwe miyala idayambira.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani mawonekedwe onse, chiyambi ndi maphunziro a petrogenesis.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

petrology ndi maphunziro

Petrology imagawidwa m'magawo angapo apadera kutengera mtundu wa thanthwe lomwe lingawerengedwe. Chifukwa chake, pali nthambi ziwiri za magawidwe a maphunziro omwe ndi petrology yamiyala ya sedimentary ndi petrology yamiyala ya igneous ndi metamorphic. Woyamba amadziwika ndi dzina lodziwika bwino la petrology ndipo wachiwiri amatchedwa petoology yamkati. Palinso nthambi zina zomwe zimasiyanasiyana kutengera zomwe akufuna kuti aphunzire miyala. Palinso mtundu wa zojambulajambula pofotokozera miyala ndi petrogenesis kuti mudziwe komwe adachokera.

Petrogenesis ndichofunikira chifukwa ndikupanga ndi chiyambi cha miyala. Monga palinso petrology ina yogwiritsidwa ntchito yomwe imayang'ana kwambiri za miyala yamiyala. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti kumvetsetsa bwino matanthwe amiyala atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo ambiri omwe alinso ofunikira, monga kumanga ndi kuchotsa zinthu zothandiza anthu.

Chifukwa chake, nthambi iyi ya sayansi ndiyofunika kwambiri kuyambira pamenepo thanthwe limathandizira kwambiri matupi amunthu. Ndikofunikira kudziwa kapangidwe kake, poyambira komanso kapangidwe ka miyala yomwe timayika ndikumanga zomangira zathu. Musanagwiritse ntchito yomanga nyumba zilizonse, zomangamanga, ndi zina zambiri. Kafukufuku woyambirira wamitundu yamiyala yomwe ilipo pansi pomanga iyenera kuchitidwa kuti muchepetse kuchepa kwa madzi, kusefukira kwamadzi, masoka, kugumuka kwa nthaka, ndi zina zambiri. Miyala ndiyofunikiranso pazinthu zambiri zamakampani.

Chiyambi cha petrology ndi petrogenesis

petrology

Chidwi chamiyala chimakhalapo mwa munthu. Ndi chinthu chosasintha m'chilengedwe chomwe chimapangitsa ukadaulo kukula kuyambira nthawi zakale. Zida zoyambirira zaumunthu zidapangidwa ndi miyala ndipo zimabweretsa zaka zonse. Amadziwika kuti Stone Age. Zopereka kuti athe kudziwa momwe miyala imagwiritsidwira ntchito zakhala zikuyenda bwino kwambiri ku China, Greece komanso chikhalidwe cha Aluya. Dziko lakumadzulo likuwonetsa zolemba za Aristotle pomwe amalankhula zakufunika kwawo.

Komabe, ngakhale anthu adagwirapo kale ntchito ndi dziko lapansi kuyambira nthawi zam'mbuyomu, chiyambi cha petrology ngati sayansi chimagwirizana kwambiri ndi komwe kumayambira geology. Geology ndiye mayi woyamba wa sayansi ndipo idalumikizidwa m'zaka za zana la XNUMXth pomwe mfundo zake zonse zidayamba kukhazikitsidwa. Petrology yokhudzana ndi kutsutsana kwasayansi komwe kudabuka pakati pa miyala. Ndi mkangano uwu, magulu awiri adadziwika omwe amadziwika kuti Neptunists ndi Plutonists.

Neptunists ndi omwe amati miyala imayamba kudzera mu sedimentation ya matope ndi crystallization amchere ochokera kunyanja yakale yomwe idaphimba dziko lonse lapansi. Pachifukwa ichi, amadziwika ndi mayina a Neptunist, ponena za Mulungu wachiroma wa nyanja ya Neptune. Mbali inayi tili ndi Plutonists. Iwo amaganiza kuti chiyambi cha matanthwe chimayambira ku magma m'malo ozama kwambiri a dziko lathu lapansi chifukwa cha kutentha kwambiri. Dzinalo la Plutonists limachokera kwa Mulungu wachiroma wa Pluto.

Chidziwitso chamakono kwambiri ndikupanga ukadaulo kumatilola kuti timvetsetse kuti maudindo onsewa amatha kukhala ndizofotokozera zenizeni. Ndipo ndikuti miyala ya sedimentary imabwera kudzera munjira zokhudzana ndi malingaliro omwe a Neptunists anali nawo, pomwe mapiri ophulika, miyala ya plutonic yamiyala ndi miyala ya metamorphic imachokera kuzinthu zomwe zimagwirizana ndi zomwe plutonists adatinso.

Maphunziro a Petrology

Tikadziwa komwe chiyambi ndi maudindo osiyanasiyana a petrology ndi, tiwona zomwe zolinga za phunziroli zili. Imafotokoza chiyambi chonse cha miyala ndi chilichonse chokhudzana ndi kapangidwe kake. Amaphatikizapo zoyambira, njira zomwe zimapangira, malo mu lithosphere komwe amapangidwira komanso msinkhu wawo. Imakhalanso ndi udindo wowerenga zomwe zimapangidwa ndi miyala. Gawo lomaliza lofunikira kwambiri pakuphunzira ndikugawa ndi petrogenesis yamiyala padziko lapansi.

Pakati pa petrology, petrogenesis yamiyala yakuthambo imaphunziridwanso. Onsewo ndi miyala yochokera kunja. M'malo mwake, miyala yomwe imachokera ku meteorites ndi mwezi ikuphunziridwa.

Mitundu ya petrogenesis

amkati petrogenesis

Monga tanena kale, pali nthambi zingapo za sayansiyi ndipo amagawidwa m'mitundu itatu ya petrogenesis yomwe imatulutsa miyala: miyala yamiyala, yamiyala komanso miyala yamiyala. Chifukwa chake, kutengera komwe thanthwe lililonse limachokera, pali nthambi ziwiri za petrology:

  • Zofanana: ali ndi udindo wowerengera miyala yonse yomwe imachokera kumtunda wosazama kwambiri wapadziko lapansi. Ndiye kuti, ndi omwe amayang'anira kafukufuku wamatanthwe a sedimentary. Mitundu iyi yamiyala imapangidwa kuchokera kukakanikizika kwa matope atasungidwa ndikunyamulidwa ndi othandizira ma geological monga mvula ndi mphepo. Madera awa adayikidwa kwazaka mamiliyoni ambiri. Koposa zonse, zimachitika pamalo otsika kwambiri monga nyanja ndi nyanja. Ndipo ndikuti zigawo zotsatizana zikuphwanya, ndikupondereza matope kupitilira mamiliyoni a zaka.
  • Zosasintha: Ndi amene amayang'anira maphunziro amitundu yamiyala yomwe imapangidwa mkati mwakuya kwambiri kwa chovala ndi chovala chapadziko lapansi. Apa tili ndi miyala yonse yamapiri amoto ophulika komanso miyala ya plutonic, miyala ya metamorphic. Pankhani yamiyala yamiyala, imadzuka chifukwa chakukakamira kwamkati kudzera m'ming'alu ndi kuzizira, ndikupanga miyala. Akadzafika pamwamba pa kuphulika kwa mapiri ndi miyala yophulika. Ngati amapangidwira mkati mwake ndi miyala ya plutonic. Miyala ya Metamorphic imachokera kumiyala yamagneous kapena sedimentary yomwe yakhala ikukumana ndi zovuta zazikulu komanso kutentha. Ndiwo miyala yamitundu yonse yomwe imapangidwa mwakuya kwambiri. Zinthu zonsezi zimapangitsa kusintha kapangidwe kake ndi kapangidwe kake.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za petrogenesis ndi mitundu yake.

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