Leibniz Mbiri

Mbiri ya Leibniz

Mu blog iyi nthawi zonse timakambirana za asayansi ofunikira kwambiri komanso zopereka zawo kudziko la sayansi. Komabe, afilosofi apanganso zopereka zambiri monga Leibniz. Ndi wafilosofi yemwe dzina lake lonse ndi Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz komanso anali katswiri wa sayansi komanso masamu. Zinakhudza kwambiri chitukuko cha sayansi yamakono. Kuphatikiza apo, ndi m'modzi mwa omwe amaimira miyambo yamasiku ano popeza chidziwitso chake mu masamu ndi fizikiya chidagwiritsidwa ntchito kufotokoza zochitika zina zachilengedwe komanso zaumunthu.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kukuwuzani chilichonse chomwe mukufuna kudziwa za mbiri ya Leibniz ndi zomwe amachita.

Leibniz Mbiri

Leibniz

Adabadwa pa Julayi 1, 1646 ku Leipzig, Germany. Anakulira m'banja lodzipereka lachilutera kumapeto kwa nkhondo yazaka 30. Nkhondo imeneyi inali itawononga dziko lonse. Kuyambira ali mwana, nthawi zonse akakhala pasukulu, amakhala ngati wodziyang'anira popeza adatha kuphunzira zinthu zambiri payekha. Pofika zaka 12, Leibniz anali ataphunzira kale chilankhulo cha Chilatini yekha. Komanso, nthawi yomweyo anali kuphunzira Chigiriki. Mphamvu zophunzirira zinali zazikulu kwambiri.

Kale mu 1661 adayamba kuphunzitsa zamalamulo ku University of Leipzig komwe anali ndi chidwi kwambiri ndi amuna omwe adachita nawo zisankho zoyambirira zasayansi komanso filosofi yamasiku ano ku Europe. Mwa amuna awa omwe adasintha machitidwe onse anali Galileo, Francis Bacon, René Descartes ndi Thomas Hobbes. Pakati pa malingaliro omwe analipo panthawiyo maphunziro ena ndi malingaliro ena a Aristotle adapezedwanso.

Atamaliza maphunziro ake azamalamulo, adakhala zaka zingapo ku Paris. Apa anayamba kuphunzitsa masamu ndi fizikiya. Kuphatikiza apo, adatha kukumana ndi afilosofi odziwika bwino komanso masamu nthawiyo ndipo adaphunzira mwatsatanetsatane onse omwe amamukonda. Anaphunzitsidwa ndi a Christian Huygens omwe anali mzati wofunika kwambiri kuti pambuyo pake adzakhale ndi malingaliro pamagwiridwe ake ndi kuphatikiza kwake.

Anadutsa madera osiyanasiyana aku Europe kukumana ndi ena mwa akatswiri anzeru kwambiri panthawiyi. Pambuyo paulendo wopita ku Europe adakhazikitsa sukulu yasayansi ku Berlin. Sukuluyi inali ndi ophunzira ambiri omwe amafuna kudziwa zambiri za sayansi. Zaka zomalizira za moyo wake zidathera poyesa kuphatikiza mawu akulu kwambiri anzeru zake. Komabe, cholinga ichi sichingachite bwino. Adamwalira ku Hanover mu Novembala 1716.

Zoyipa ndi zopereka za Leibniz

zochitika za akatswiri afilosofi

Tidzawona zomwe zakhala zikuluzikulu ndi zochitika za Leibniz kudziko la sayansi ndi filosofi. Monga ena afilosofi ndi asayansi a nthawiyo, Leibniz wodziwika bwino m'malo osiyanasiyana. Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti munthawiyi munalibe chidziwitso chambiri pamalangizo onse, kotero munthu m'modzi akhoza kukhala katswiri m'malo angapo. Pakadali pano, mukuyenera kukhazikika m'dera limodzi lokha ndipo ndizovuta kuti mudziwe zambiri zamderali. Ndipo chowonadi ndichakuti kuchuluka kwa zidziwitso zomwe zilipo komanso zomwe zingapitilize kufufuzidwa pokhudzana ndi zomwe kale ndizosiyana kwambiri.

Mphamvu za akatswiri m'malo osiyanasiyana zidamulola kuti apange malingaliro osiyanasiyana ndikukhazikitsa maziko amakono a sayansi. Zitsanzo zake zinali masamu ndi zomveka komanso nzeru. Tigawana zomwe zopereka zawo zazikulu ndi izi:

Ziwerengero zopanda malire mu masamu

cholowa mu filosofi ndi masamu

Pamodzi ndi Isaac Newton, Leibniz amadziwika kuti ndi m'modzi mwa omwe amapanga ma calculus. Kugwiritsa ntchito koyambirira kwa chiwerengero chophatikizira kunanenedwa mchaka cha 1675 ndi Ndikadagwiritsa ntchito kupeza malowa Y = X. Mwanjira imeneyi, imatha kupanga malingaliro ena monga kuphatikiza S ndikupanga lamulo la Leibniz, pokhala ndendende lamulo lazopanga masiyanidwe. Anathandizanso kutanthauzira masamu osiyanasiyana omwe timatcha infinitesimals ndikufotokozera zonse zomwe zili ndi algebraic. Pakadali pano panali zododometsa zambiri zomwe zimayenera kukonzedwanso ndikukonzanso kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la khumi ndi chisanu ndi chinayi.

Zomveka

Zoperekedwa pamaziko a epistemology ndi modal logic. Anali wokhulupirika pamaphunziro ake a masamu ndipo adatha kunena bwino kuti zovuta zamaganizidwe a anthu zimatha kutanthauziridwa mchilankhulo cha kuwerengera. Kuwerengera uku kumamveka, kumatha kukhala yankho labwino kuthetsa kusamvana kwamalingaliro ndi mikangano pakati pa anthu. Pachifukwa ichi, amadziwika kuti ndi m'modzi mwa akatswiri odziwika bwino kwambiri m'nthawi yake, kuyambira Aristotle.

Mwazina, adatha kufotokoza kuthekera ndi njira yazinthu zosiyanasiyana zazilankhulo monga cholumikizira, kunyalanyaza, kukhazikitsa, kuphatikiza, kudziwika ndi zopanda pake, komanso kulumikizana. Zonse zinali zothandiza ndikumvetsetsa ndikupanga kulingalira koyenera ndi kutanthauzirana wina ndi mnzake zomwe siziri zomveka. Zonsezi ndi gawo limodzi lofunikira pakukhazikitsa mfundo zazomwe zingachitike.

Malingaliro a Leibniz

Filosofi ya Leibniz yafotokozedwa mwachidule pakupanga kwamunthu aliyense. Zinachitika m'ma 1660 ndikuteteza kukhalapo kwa phindu lomwe limapanga palokha palokha. Izi zili choncho chifukwa ndizotheka kusiyanitsa ndi zomwe zidakhazikitsidwa. Imeneyi inali njira yoyamba kuchikhulupiriro chachijeremani cha amonke. Ndizofanana ndi fizikiki momwe akuti monads ndiye gawo lamaganizidwe momwe maatomu ali padziko lapansi. Ndiwo zinthu zomalizira m'chilengedwe chonse ndipo chomwe chimapanga mawonekedwe owoneka bwino kukhala kudzera muzinthu monga izi: ma monads ndiwamuyaya popeza sawola kukhala tinthu tina tating'onoting'ono, ndianthunthu, otakataka, omvera malamulo awo.

Zonsezi zafotokozedwa monga choyimira payokha cha chilengedwe chonse.

Monga mukuwonera, Leibniz wapanga zopereka zambiri kudziko la sayansi ndi filosofi. Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za Leibniz mu mbiri yake.


Zomwe zili m'nkhaniyi zikutsatira mfundo zathu za malamulo okonzekera. Kuti mufotokoze cholakwika dinani Apa.

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