Kufanana kwa Maxwell

maxwell mawerengedwe

Kuyambira kale pakhala asayansi ambiri omwe adathandizira kwambiri sayansi yomwe yapita patsogolo kwambiri. Umu ndi momwe zimakhalira ndi wasayansi waku Scotland a James Clerk Maxwell. Wasayansi uyu adapanga chiphunzitso chazinthu zamagetsi pochepetsa kuti kuwala kumapangidwa ndimagetsi ndi maginito omwe amafalikira mosalekeza mumlengalenga. Zotsitsa zonsezi zidayambitsidwa mu Kufanana kwa Maxwell kuwonetsa ndikuwonetsa lingaliro lanu. Chiphunzitsochi chidatsogolera kuneneratu zakupezeka kwa mafunde a wailesi komanso ma wailesi.

Munkhaniyi tikuti tikufotokozereni za mbiri yakale, zochitika zamakedzana pazofanana za a Maxwell.

Maxwell Wambiri

wasayansi wabwino

Kumbukirani kuti asayansi onse amayamba kuchokera pantchito yomwe asayansi ena akale adachita. Mawuwa akufotokozedwa ndi Newton m'mawu a "Asayansi onse amagwira ntchito pamapewa amphona". Izi zikutanthauza kuti zambiri zomwe amachita zimapangidwa chifukwa cha ntchito yomwe anali atachita asayansi ena kale. Izi ndizowona makamaka kwa a Maxwell popeza adatha kuphatikiza chidziwitso chonse chomwe chidakhalapo kwa zaka 150 pazokhudza ntchito yake. Mwanjira imeneyi, mudzatha kufotokoza za magetsi, nyese, maso ndi kulumikizana kwawo kwakuthupi.

James Clerk Maxwell adabadwira ku Edinburgh mu 1831. Banja lake linali pakati. Mwamuna uyu nthawi zonse anali ndi chidwi chachilendo kuyambira ali mwana. Pazaka 14 zokha ndinali nditalemba kale pepala. Mu pepalali ndidalongosola njira zoyambirira zamakina kuti athe kuthana ndi ma curve. Adaphunzira ku mayunivesite a Edinburgh ndi Cambridge komwe adadabwitsa ophunzira ndi aphunzitsi atamupatsa kuthekera kothetsa mavuto ena. Mavuto onse adapezeka m'masamu ndi fizikiya zomwe zinali zovuta kwa ophunzira ena onse.

Ali ndi zaka 23 adamaliza maphunziro a masamu ku Trinity College ndipo patatha zaka ziwiri adatha kupeza udindo ngati Pulofesa wa Philosophy ku Marischal College, Aberdeen. Adakhala patsamba lino kwa zaka 4 ndipo amapanga zidziwitso zingapo. Mwanjira yoti mu 1860 adakwanitsa kupeza udindowu koma ku King's College, London. Ndipanthawi pomwe nthawi yopindulitsa kwambiri pantchito yake yonse idayamba. Pamalo amenewa panali chuma chabwinoko chomwe chimamupangitsa kuti ayesere ndikuyesa malingaliro ake.

Kufanana kwa Maxwell

Kufotokozera kwa maxwell

Malingaliro a Maxwell mwina ndi cholowa chabwino kwambiri chomwe wasayansi uyu wasiya. Popeza kuchuluka kwake komanso zopereka zake zasayansi zinali kuchuluka, Anatha kulowa nawo Royal Society mu 1861. Apa ndipomwe anthu kapena lingaliro lamagetsi lamagetsi lidabwerera ndi banja lake kunyumba kwa makolo ake ku Scotland. Adasankhidwa kukhala director of the Cavendish laboratory ku Cambridge mu 1871. Pambuyo pake adamwalira ndi khansa yam'mimba ali ndi zaka 48 mu 1879.

Ndiko kufalitsa kwa nkhani yolembedwa kuti "Mfundo yamphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi yamagetsi" pomwe ma equation a Maxwell adawonekera koyamba. Kufanana kumeneku ndi komwe kumafotokoza momveka bwino komanso mwachidule malamulo onse okhudzana ndi magetsi ndi maginito. Ziyenera kukumbukiridwa kuti zidapangidwa kuyambira zaka za zana la XNUMX ndi adadalira malamulo a Ampère, Faraday ndi Lenz. Pakadali pano, mawu a vekitala omwe agwiritsidwa ntchito adayambitsidwa patadutsa zaka Heaviside ndi Gibbs.

Kufunika kofananira kwa a Maxwell

masamu masamu

Phindu la ma equation awa sikuti limangokhala mu kaphatikizidwe ka malingaliro onse a asayansi onse omwe anali kupereka zambiri zamagetsi ndi maginito. Ndipo ndizo Kufanana kwa a Maxwell kuwulula ubale wapakati pa magetsi ndi maginito. Kuchokera pamalingaliro ake, ma equation ena amatha kuzindikirika, monga mafunde omwe amatanthauzira kukhalapo kwa mafunde amagetsi amagetsi omwe amatha kufalitsa pa liwiro la kuwala.

Kuchokera apa titha kudziwa kuti kuwala ndi nyese ndi zina mwazinthu zomwezi ndikuti kuwunika ndikusokoneza kwamagetsi. Chifukwa cha izi, ntchito ya Maxwell idalumikiza ndikuphatikiza magetsi ku magetsi amagetsi ndikuwulula mawonekedwe amagetsi omwe kuwala kuli nawo. Mphamvu yamagetsi yamagetsi imayenera kuyesedwa mu labotale ndipo idachitika ndi wasayansi waku Germany Heinrich Hertz mchaka cha 1887, zaka zingapo atamwalira a Maxwell.

Izi zitha kuchitika pomanga oscillator yomwe imagwira ntchito ngati emitter komanso resonator yomwe imakhala yolandila. Chifukwa cha zida izi zinali zotheka kupanga mafunde ndikuwalandila patali ndipo izi zidapangitsa kuti injiniya wina waku Italiya atchulidwe Guillermo Marconi atha kukonza njira zopangira kusintha kwamatekinoloje. Kusintha kwaukadaulo uku ndi kuyankhulana pamawailesi. Zina mwazinthu za tsiku ndi tsiku zomwe tili nazo lero, monga mafoni, ndizotengera ukadaulo uwu womwe adapeza Guillermo Marconi.

Zifukwa zonsezi ndizokwanira kukhulupilira kuti ma equation a Maxwell, omwe poyamba angawoneke ngati ophunzirira kuposa sayansi yoyambira, akhala akugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo wamakono. Kugwiritsa ntchito ma equation a Maxwell kudabwera kudzasintha dziko mwanjira yoti titha kulumikizana patali pogwiritsa ntchito matelefoni.

Cholowa

Zopereka zonsezi sizongotengera lingaliro la magetsi amagetsi ndi kuwala. Kumbukirani kuti Maxwell anali katswiri wodziwa zaumulungu yemwe ankadziperekanso yekha ku kinetics ya mpweya ndi thermodynamics. Izi zinagwiritsidwa ntchito m'njira zosiyanasiyana zowerengera kuti athe kudziwa kuti mwina tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timakhala ndi mpweya wochuluka timakhala ndi velocity. Kupeza kumeneku kunali Lero akutcha kuti kugawa kwa Maxwell-Boltzmann.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri zamafanizo a Maxwell ndikufunika kwawo.

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