ma asteroids ndi chiyani

asteroid m'chilengedwe chonse

Mu zakuthambo, meteorites ndi asteroids amatchulidwa nthawi zambiri. Anthu ambiri amakayikira kusiyana pakati pawo ndi ma asteroids ndi chiyani Zoonadi. Kuti mumvetsetse bwino mawonekedwe onse a dzuŵa lathu, m'pofunika kudziwa kuti asteroids ndi chiyani.

Pachifukwa ichi, tikupereka nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni zomwe asteroids ali, makhalidwe awo, chiyambi ndi zoopsa zake.

ma asteroids ndi chiyani

ma asteroids ndi chiyani

Ma asteroids ndi miyala ya mlengalenga yomwe ndi yaying'ono kwambiri kuposa mapulaneti ndipo imazungulira dzuwa munjira zozungulira ndi mamiliyoni a asteroids, ambiri a iwo otchedwa "asteroid lamba". Zina zonse zimagawidwa mumayendedwe a mapulaneti ena ozungulira dzuwa, kuphatikizapo Dziko lapansi.

Ma asteroids ndi omwe amafufuzidwa nthawi zonse chifukwa cha kuyandikira kwawo kwa Dziko lapansi. Ngakhale kuti iwo afika ku dziko lathu lakale kwambiri, kuthekera kwa chikoka ndi kochepa kwambiri. Ndipotu asayansi ambiri amati kutha kwa ma dinosaur kumabwera chifukwa cha mphamvu ya asteroid.

Dzina lakuti asteroid limachokera ku liwu lachigriki lotanthauza "chithunzi cha nyenyezi," kutanthauza maonekedwe awo chifukwa amaoneka ngati nyenyezi pamene akuyang'ana pa telescope pa Dziko Lapansi. Nthawi zambiri m'zaka za zana la XNUMX. ma asteroids ankatchedwa "planetoids" kapena "mapulaneti aang'ono."

Zina zinagwera pa dziko lathu lapansi. Zikalowa mumlengalenga, zimayaka ndikukhala meteorite. Asteroids aakulu kwambiri nthawi zina amatchedwa asteroids. Anthu ena ali ndi zibwenzi. Asteroid yaikulu kwambiri ndi Ceres, pafupifupi makilomita 1.000 m'mimba mwake. Mu 2006, International Astronomical Union (IAU) idafotokoza kuti ndi pulaneti laling'ono ngati Pluto. Kenako Vesta ndi Pallas, 525 Km. Khumi ndi zisanu ndi chimodzi apezeka pa 240 km, ndipo ambiri ang'onoang'ono.

Unyinji wophatikizana wa ma asteroids onse mu dongosolo la dzuŵa ndi wocheperapo kuposa wa mwezi. Zinthu zazikuluzikulu zimakhala zozungulira, koma zinthu zosakwana mailosi 160 m'mimba mwake zimakhala zazitali, zowoneka bwino. Anthu ambiri amafunikira maola 5 mpaka 20 kuti amalize kuzungulira kumodzi panjira.

Ndi asayansi ochepa chabe amene amaganiza kuti ma asteroids ndi mabwinja a mapulaneti owonongedwa. Mwachidziwikire, amakhala pamalo ozungulira dzuŵa pomwe pulaneti lalikulu likanapanga, osati chifukwa cha kuwononga kwa Jupiter.

Chiyambi

Lingaliro likunena kuti ma asteroids ndi zotsalira za mitambo ya gasi ndi fumbi yomwe idakhazikika pomwe Dzuwa ndi Dziko lapansi zidapanga pafupifupi zaka mamiliyoni asanu zapitazo. Zina mwa zinthu zochokera mumtambowo zinasonkhana pakati, n’kupanga phata limene linalenga dzuwa.

Zina zonse zimazungulira phata latsopano, kupanga zidutswa za kukula kosiyana kotchedwa "asteroids." Izi zimachokera ku zigawo za zinthu zomwe iwo sanaphatikizidwe ndi dzuŵa kapena mapulaneti a mapulaneti ozungulira dzuŵa.

mtundu wa asteroid

mitundu ya asteroids

Asteroids amagawidwa m'magulu atatu kutengera malo awo ndi mtundu wa magulu:

  • Asteroids mu lamba. Iwo ndi amene amapezeka mu mlengalenga mozungulira kapena m'malire a Mars ndi Jupiter. Lamba uyu ali ndi zambiri zomwe zili mumlengalenga.
  • centaur asteroid. Amazungulira malire pakati pa Jupiter kapena Saturn ndi pakati pa Uranus kapena Neptune, motsatana.
  • trojan asteroid. Ndiwo omwe amagawana mayendedwe a mapulaneti koma nthawi zambiri samapanga kusiyana.

Amene ali pafupi kwambiri ndi dziko lathu lapansi agawidwa m'magulu atatu:

  • Chikondi cha Asteroids. Ndiwo omwe amadutsa njira ya Mars.
  • Apollo asteroids. Iwo omwe amawoloka mayendedwe a Dziko lapansi ali pachiwopsezo chachibale (ngakhale chiwopsezo cha kukhudzidwa ndi chochepa).
  • Ma asteroids. Zigawo zomwe zimadutsa munjira ya Dziko Lapansi.

Makhalidwe apamwamba

ma asteroids mumlengalenga ndi chiyani

Asteroids amadziwika ndi mphamvu yokoka yofooka kwambiri, yomwe imawalepheretsa kukhala ozungulira. Kutalika kwawo kumatha kusiyanasiyana kuchokera pa mita imodzi mpaka mazana a kilomita.

Amapangidwa ndi zitsulo ndi miyala (dongo, miyala ya silicate ndi nickel-iron) mumagulu omwe amatha kusiyanasiyana malinga ndi mtundu uliwonse wa zinthu zakuthambo. Alibe mpweya ndipo ena amakhala ndi mwezi umodzi.

Kuchokera padziko lapansi, ma asteroids amaoneka ngati tinthu tating'onoting'ono tokhala ngati nyenyezi. Chifukwa chakuchepa kwake komanso mtunda wautali kuchokera pa Dziko Lapansi, chidziwitso chake chimachokera pa nyenyezi ndi radiometry, ma curve opepuka komanso mawonekedwe owonera mayamwidwe (mawerengedwe a zakuthambo omwe amatilola kumvetsetsa zambiri za dongosolo la dzuwa).

Zomwe asteroids ndi comets zimafanana ndizoti zonsezi ndi zakuthambo zomwe zimazungulira dzuwa, nthawi zambiri zimatenga njira zachilendo (monga kuyandikira dzuwa kapena mapulaneti ena), ndipo ndizotsalira za zinthu zomwe zinapanga dzuwa.

Komabe, amasiyana chifukwa chakuti comet amapangidwa ndi fumbi ndi mpweya, komanso njere za ayezi. Comets amadziwika ndi michira kapena tinjira zomwe amasiya m'mbuyo, ngakhale sizimachoka nthawi zonse.

Monga momwe zilili ndi ayezi, mawonekedwe awo ndi mawonekedwe ake amasiyana malinga ndi kutalika kwawo ndi dzuwa: amakhala ozizira kwambiri komanso amdima akakhala kutali ndi dzuwa, kapena amatenthedwa ndikutulutsa fumbi ndi gasi (chifukwa chake chiyambi cha dzuwa). contrail). Pafupi ndi dzuwa Comets amaganiziridwa kuti adayika madzi ndi zinthu zina padziko lapansi pomwe adapangidwa koyamba.

Pali mitundu iwiri ya makaiti:

  • m'masiku ochepa patsogolo. Ma comets omwe amatenga zaka zosakwana 200 kuti azungulire dzuwa.
  • nthawi yayitali Ma comets omwe amapanga njira zazitali komanso zosayembekezereka. Zitha kutenga zaka 30 miliyoni kuti zimalize kuzungulira dzuŵa kumodzi.

Lamba la Asteroid

Lamba wa asteroid amakhala ndi mgwirizano kapena pafupifupi matupi angapo akumwamba omwe amagawidwa ngati mphete (kapena lamba), yomwe ili pakati pa malire a Mars ndi Jupiter. Akuti ili ndi ma asteroids akulu akulu pafupifupi mazana awiri (makilomita zana m'mimba mwake) ndi ma asteroid ang'onoang'ono miliyoni (kilomita imodzi m'mimba mwake). Chifukwa cha kukula kwa asteroid, anayi adadziwika kuti ndi otchuka:

  • Ceres. Ndilo lalikulu kwambiri mu lamba ndipo ndilokhalo lomwe limayandikira kwambiri kuti liwoneke ngati pulaneti chifukwa cha mawonekedwe ake ozungulira.
  • Vesta. Ndi asteroid yachiwiri yayikulu kwambiri mu lamba komanso asteroid yayikulu kwambiri komanso yowundana. Maonekedwe ake ndi ozungulira.
  • Palas. Ndilo lachitatu lalikulu la malamba ndipo lili ndi njira yotsetsereka pang'ono, yomwe ili yapadera chifukwa cha kukula kwake.
  • Hygieia. Ndilo lachinayi lalikulu mu lamba, ndi m'mimba mwake wa makilomita mazana anayi. Pamwamba pake ndi mdima ndipo ndizovuta kuwerenga.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za ma asteroids ndi mawonekedwe awo.


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