Madzi osefukira ku China

Zowonongeka

Chifukwa cha kusintha kwa nyengo, nyengo zoopsa monga kusefukira kwa madzi zimachitika pafupipafupi komanso mwamphamvu. The kusefukira ku china zikuchulukirachulukira. Zawononga kale chuma chambiri ndipo zapha anthu ambiri m'zaka zaposachedwa. Kuti achite zimenezi, a ku China akonza njira zina zoti athe kuletsa kusefukira kwakupha kumeneku.

Chifukwa chake, tikupatulira nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza kusefukira kwa madzi ku China, kuwonongeka komwe kumayambitsa komanso njira ndi njira zomwe boma likuchita.

Madzi osefukira ku China

kusefukira ku china

Kukula kodabwitsa kwa mizinda ya ku China m'zaka makumi angapo zapitazi, kuphatikiza ndi mawonekedwe ake apadera a geology ndi nyengo, kwachititsa kusanganikirana kwakupha kwa kusefukira kwamadzi kumayambitsa mamiliyoni aanthu, mazana masauzande a imfa ndi kuwonongeka kwakukulu kwachuma. Pali zinthu zingapo zomwe zachitika pofuna kuthana ndi kusefukira kwa madzi. Ndi chiyani ndipo zotsatira zake ndi zotani? mu cholemba chotsatira.

Kuyambira 1949, kusefukira kwa madzi opitilira 50 chifukwa cha mkuntho, mvula yamkuntho kapena mafunde akhudza madera osiyanasiyana a gawo la China.. Zochitika izi zidapangitsa kuti boma likhazikitse njira zopewera kuchepetsa kutayika kwa anthu ndi zinthu, ndikuyanjanitsanso mgwirizano pakati pa kusefukira kwamadzi ndi chitukuko cha chikhalidwe cha anthu.

Mbiri ndi yowolowa manja pankhani ya masoka obwera chifukwa cha kusefukira kwa madzi. Mwachitsanzo, mu 1931, mzinda wa Wuhan unasefukira kwa masiku oposa 100 ndipo kusefukira kwa madzi kunasiya anthu oposa 780 opanda pokhala ndi kupha 000. Chigumula chinanso chinachitika m’chigwa cha mtsinje wa Han mu 32, ndipo chinapha anthu oposa 600 ndi kumiza mzinda wa Ankang. 1983 mamita pansi pa nyanja.

Kuyambira 2000, dziko la China lakumana ndi kusefukira kwamadzi kamodzi pazaka ziwiri zilizonse. Zina mwazodziwika bwino kwambiri ndi kusefukira kwa madzi mu July 2003, pamene chimphepo chamkuntho chomwe sichinachitikepo chinagunda ku Nanjing, kuchititsa mvula ya tsiku ndi tsiku yoposa 309 mm - pafupifupi kawiri mvula yapachaka pakati pa Chile - kwa mazana a imfa, kuphatikizapo oposa 1 miliyoni omwe anazunzidwa.

Mu Julayi 2007, Chongqing ndi Jinan adakhudzidwa ndi mphepo yamkuntho yayikulu kwambiri mzaka 100. kupha anthu 103, ndipo mu 2010, Sichuan inasiya anthu oposa 800.000 opanda pokhala ndikupha anthu 150. Deta ikuwonetsa kuti pafupifupi 80% ya kusefukira kwamadzi sikuchitika kumidzi, koma m'mizinda.

Panthawiyi, akatswiri a mizinda akudziwa bwino kuti mizinda yamakono siili yolimba kwambiri moti imatha kupirira mvula yambiri ndipo amati tsoka "lochepa" likhoza kuchedwetsa chitukuko cha mzinda kwa zaka makumi awiri.

Njira zopewera kusefukira kwa madzi ku China

kuwonongeka kwa madzi osefukira

Madzi osefukira a m’tauni nthawi zambiri amawononga zinthu zambiri ndipo amakhudza anthu ambiri, ndipo kuwonongeka kwa mzindawu n’kofanana ndi kukula kwa mzindawu, choncho zoopsazi zimakula chaka chilichonse pamene kukula kwa mizinda kukukulirakulira, zomwe zimadetsa nkhawa kwambiri ngati zingatheke kulekerera. Kuyika pachiwopsezo bata lonse lazachuma m'zigawo zokhala anthu makumi kapena mamiliyoni mazana.

Kuti athetse nkhani yomvetsa chisoniyi, mu 2003 Unduna wa Zamadzi ku China udapereka lingaliro kwa boma lalikulu kuti lichitepo kanthu pankhaniyi, zomwe zidapangitsa kusintha kuchoka ku lamulo loletsa kusefukira kwamadzi kupita ku lamulo loletsa kusefukira kwa madzi.

Izi zapangitsa kuti ntchito zachitukuko zikhazikitsidwe m'dera la kusefukira kwa madzi, kukonza mapulani opewera komanso njira zingapo zotsimikizira chitetezo cha anthu ambiri. Komabe, akuti 355 mwa mizinda 642 komwe kuwongolera kusefukira ndi ntchito yayikulu -55% - amagwiritsa ntchito miyezo yowongolera kusefukira kwamadzi kuposa yomwe idakhazikitsidwa ndi boma lalikulu.

M'zaka zaposachedwa, China idayambitsa lingaliro la "kuwongolera zoopsa" ndikukonza mfundo zatsopano. Choncho, kuti asiye kudalira njira zochepetsera kuwonongeka kwa kusefukira kwa madzi ndi kulinganiza njira zogwirira ntchito komanso zosagwirizana ndi ndondomekoyi, Unduna wa Zamadzi udapanga njira yoyendetsera dziko lonse mu 2005.

Zomwe zimatchedwa "China Flood Control Strategy" zikhoza kufotokozedwa mophweka monga: boma la China likusankha kuwongolera kusefukira kwa madzi pogwiritsa ntchito chiopsezo, kutsindika njira zomwe sizinali zachitukuko, makamaka za kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe kake. machitidwe, mapulani ochepetsera masoka ndi inshuwaransi yowongolera kusefukira kwamadzi) ndikuthandizira kukhazikitsidwa kwa mapulani okhazikitsa njira, monga kulimbikitsa madamu, kuwongolera kuchuluka kwa mitsinje ndi kumanga malo osungiramo madzi, kuti apindule mokwanira komanso nthawi yayitali.

Mfundo zofunika

kusefukira kwa madzi ku China

Ntchito zitatu zaukadaulo za 'kuwongolera' kusefukira ndi:

  • Mangani ntchito zosunga madzi kuti muchepetse masoka moyenera. Ntchito yayikulu ya Damu la Three Gorges ndiyodziwika bwino pantchitoyi.
  • Yang'anirani zochita za anthu kuti muchepetse kuwonongeka kwa kusefukira kwamadzi m'makampani opanga zinthu.
  • Kugwiritsa ntchito bwino madzi osefukira komanso kugwiritsa ntchito madzi otsala.

Kuti akwaniritse dongosololi, boma la China lazindikira maziko othandizira kupita patsogolo kwa sayansi ndiukadaulo, kuwonetsetsa kuti pali ndalama zokwanira komanso kuchepetsa masoka ochezera. Pomaliza, kugwiritsa ntchito kusefukira kwamadzi komwe sikungapeweke kuthana ndi kusowa kwa madzi komwe kumachitika chifukwa chakukula kwa mizinda mwachangu ndi chitsanzo chabwino cha njira yaku China yongofuna kuchepetsa kusefukira kwamadzi komanso zotsatira zake zoyipa, komanso kufunafuna kupindula ndi masoka achilengedwe awa.

 

Senator Alejandro Navarro ananena kuti Chile ayenera kutsatira chitsanzo cha China, "anamvetsa kuti ayenera kuyembekezera mphamvu zachilengedwe kudzera njira wathunthu kuti, kuwonjezera kumanga madamu ndi ntchito zina, kulabadira kuphunzitsa anthu ndi kukhazikitsa ndondomeko kuchepetsa ndi zina. miyeso. »

Waphunguyo anawonjezera kuti: "Palibe kusefukira kwa madzi komwe kukuyembekezeka pano ndipo pali maumboni angapo a izi, monga zomwe zinachitika mu Ngalande ya Papen miyezi ingapo yapitayo, pomwe palibe chomwe chidachitika kuwongolera madzi. Mvula yomwe idapangitsa kuti ngalandeyo kusefukira ndikupha. Mazana a anthu, choyamba Boma liyenera kulipira mabanja ndikuyika njira kuti tsoka lamtunduwu lisachitikenso ", adamaliza.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za kusefukira kwa madzi ku China ndikuyamikira kuchita.


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