Kodi kujambula mapu ndi chiyani

mapu evolution

Geography ili ndi nthambi zambiri zofunika zomwe zimaphunzira mbali zosiyanasiyana za dziko lathu lapansi. Imodzi mwa nthambizi ndi kujambula makatoni. Kujambula mapu ndi komwe kumatithandiza kupanga mapu omwe timakonda kutembenukirako kuti tiwone m'maganizo mwathu maderawo. Komabe, anthu ambiri sadziwa kujambula mapu ndi chiyani kapena chilango ichi chili choyang'anira chiyani.

Chifukwa chake, tipereka nkhaniyi kuti tikuuzeni zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza zojambulajambula ndi mawonekedwe ake.

Kodi kujambula mapu ndi chiyani

social mapu ndi chiyani

Matupi a mapu ndi nthambi ya geography yomwe imayang'ana mawonekedwe a madera, nthawi zambiri m'magawo awiri komanso mwachizolowezi. Mwanjira ina, kujambula mapu ndi luso ndi sayansi yopanga, kusanthula, kuphunzira, ndi kumvetsetsa mamapu amitundu yonse. Kuwonjezera, ndinso mapu omwe alipo ndi zolemba zofanana.

Kujambula mapu ndi sayansi yakale komanso yamakono. Imayesa kukwaniritsa chikhumbo chaumunthu choyimira dziko lapansi, chomwe chimakhala chovuta chifukwa ndi geoid.

Kuti achite izi, sayansi idagwiritsa ntchito njira yowonetsera yomwe idapangidwa kuti ikhale yofanana pakati pa gawo ndi ndege. Chifukwa chake, adapanga mawonekedwe ofananirako amitundu yapadziko lapansi, mapindikidwe ake, ngodya zake, zonse zimatengera magawo ena ndi mfundo zoyambira kusankha zomwe zili zofunika komanso zomwe sizili.

Kufunika kwa mapu

Kujambula mapu n’kofunika masiku ano. Ndikofunikira pazochitika zonse zapadziko lonse lapansi, monga malonda a mayiko ndi maulendo apakati pa mayiko osiyanasiyana, chifukwa amafunikira chidziwitso chochepa cha komwe kuli zinthu padziko lapansi.

Popeza miyeso ya Dziko lapansi ndi yayikulu kwambiri kotero kuti sizingatheke kuiganizira yonse, kujambula mapu ndi sayansi yomwe imatilola kuti tipeze kuyandikira kwapafupi kwambiri.

nthambi za katoni

kujambula mapu ndi chiyani

Kujambula kumapangidwa ndi nthambi ziwiri: katuni wamba ndi katoni wazithunzi.

  • Kujambula kwachidule. Izi ndi ziwonetsero za maiko amtundu wotakata, ndiko kuti, kwa omvera onse komanso zolinga zazidziwitso. Mapu adziko lapansi, mamapu amayiko, zonse ndi ntchito za dipatimenti iyi.
  • Kujambula kwazithunzi. Kumbali ina, nthambi iyi imayang'ana kuyimira kwawo pazigawo zina, mitu kapena malamulo enaake, monga zachuma, zaulimi, zankhondo, ndi zina. Mwachitsanzo, mapu a dziko lapansi okhudza chitukuko cha manyuchi ali mkati mwa nthambi yojambula mapu.

Monga tanenera poyamba, kujambula mapu kuli ndi ntchito yaikulu: kufotokoza dziko lathu mwatsatanetsatane ndi magawo osiyanasiyana olondola, kukula kwake ndi njira zosiyanasiyana. Zimatanthawuzanso kafukufuku, kufananitsa ndi kutsutsa kwa mapu ndi mawonetsedwewa kuti akambirane za mphamvu zawo, zofooka zawo, zotsutsa ndi kusintha komwe kungatheke.

Kupatula apo, palibe chilichonse mwachilengedwe pamapu: ndi chinthu chaumisiri ndi chikhalidwe elucidation, chidule cha kakulidwe ka anthu kamene kamachokera ku mmene timaganizira dziko lathu.

zojambula zojambula

Kunena zochulukira, kujambula mapu kumayambira ntchito yake yoyimira pagulu lazinthu ndi malingaliro omwe amalola kuti ikonzekere bwino zomwe zili pamapu molingana ndi kawonedwe ndi masikelo. Zinthu za katoni ndi izi:

  • Kukula: Popeza kuti dziko lapansi ndi lalikulu kwambiri, kuti tiyimire mowonekera, tiyenera kuchepetsa zinthu m'njira wamba kuti tisunge milingo. Kutengera ndi sikelo yogwiritsidwa ntchito, mtunda womwe umayezedwa pamakilomita udzayesedwa ma centimita kapena mamilimita, ndikukhazikitsa muyezo wofanana.
  • Zofanana: Dziko lapansi limapangidwa kukhala mizere iwiri, yoyamba kukhala mizere yofanana. Ngati dziko lapansi ligawika m’magawo aŵiri a dziko lapansi kuyambira ku equator, ndiye kuti kufananako kuli mzere wofanana ndi mlongoti wopingasa wongoyerekezerawo, umene umagawanitsa dziko lapansi m’zigawo zanyengo, kuyambira ku mizere ina iŵiri yotchedwa tropics (Cancer ndi Capricorn).
  • Ma Meridians: Mizere yachiwiri yomwe imagawanitsa dziko lapansi ndi msonkhano, meridians perpendicular to parallels, ndi "axis" kapena meridian yapakati yomwe imadutsa Royal Greenwich Observatory (yotchedwa "zero meridian" kapena "Greenwich meridian"). London, mongoyerekeza imagwirizana ndi kuzungulira kwa dziko lapansi. Kuyambira nthawi imeneyo, dziko lapansi lagawanika kukhala magawo awiri, kugawidwa 30 ° iliyonse ndi meridian, kugawa dziko lapansi kukhala magawo angapo.
  • Ogwirizanitsa: Mwa kujowina ma latitudes ndi meridians, mumapeza gululi ndi dongosolo logwirizanitsa lomwe limakupatsani mwayi wopereka latitude (yotsimikiziridwa ndi latitudes) ndi longitude (yotsimikiziridwa ndi meridians) kumalo aliwonse pansi. Kugwiritsa ntchito chiphunzitsochi ndi momwe GPS imagwirira ntchito.
  • zizindikiro zojambula: Mapuwa ali ndi zilankhulo zawo ndipo amatha kuzindikira zinthu zomwe zingawasangalatse malinga ndi mikangano. Kotero, mwachitsanzo, zizindikiro zina zimaperekedwa ku mizinda, zina ku likulu, zina ku madoko ndi ndege, ndi zina zotero.

Zithunzi zojambulajambula

Chiyambireni kusintha kwa digito kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la XNUMX, asayansi ochepa adathawa kufunika kogwiritsa ntchito makompyuta. Pamenepa, kujambula kwa digito ndikugwiritsa ntchito ma satelayiti ndi zoyimira za digito popanga mamapu.

Kotero njira yakale yojambulira ndi kusindikiza pamapepala tsopano ndi nkhani ya osonkhanitsa ndi mpesa. Ngakhale mafoni osavuta masiku ano amatha kugwiritsa ntchito intaneti ndipo amapeza mamapu a digito. Pali zambiri zobwezeredwa zomwe zitha kulowetsedwa, komanso zimatha kugwira ntchito molumikizana.

zojambula zamagulu

mapu apadziko lonse lapansi

Mapu a chikhalidwe cha anthu ndi njira yophatikiza kupanga mapu ogwirizana. Ikufuna kuthetsa tsankho komanso zachikhalidwe zomwe zimatsagana ndi zojambula zamakatoni zachikhalidwe potengera zomwe zili pakati pa dziko lapansi, kufunikira kwachigawo ndi njira zina zandale zofanana.

Motero, kupanga mapu a chikhalidwe cha anthu kunachokera ku lingaliro lakuti sipangakhale ntchito yojambula mapu popanda madera, ndi kuti kujambula mapu kuyenera kuchitidwa mopingasa momwe kungathekere.

Mbiri ya katoni

Kujambula mapu kunabadwa kuchokera ku chikhumbo chaumunthu kufufuza ndi kutenga zoopsa, zomwe zidachitika kale kwambiri m'mbiri: mamapu oyamba m'mbiri adachokera ku 6000 BC. c., kuphatikizapo zojambula zakale za mzinda wakale wa Anatolia wa Çatal Hüyük. Kufunika kwa mapu mwina kunali chifukwa cha kukhazikitsidwa kwa njira zamalonda ndi mapulani ankhondo ogonjetsa, popeza panalibe dziko lomwe linali ndi gawo panthawiyo.

Mapu oyambirira a dziko lapansi, ndiko kuti, mapu oyambirira a dziko lonse lapansi omwe amadziwika ndi anthu akumadzulo kuyambira zaka za m'ma XNUMX AD, ndi ntchito ya Mroma Claudius Ptolemy, mwinamwake kukhutiritsa chikhumbo cha Ufumu wonyada wa Roma kuti uwononge kukula kwake kwakukulu. malire.

Komabe, m'zaka za m'ma Middle Ages. Zojambula zachiarabu zidapangidwa kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi, ndipo China idayambanso m'zaka za zana la XNUMX AD Akuti pafupifupi mamapu 1.100 a dziko lapansi adapulumuka kuchokera ku Middle Ages.

Kuphulika kwenikweni kwa zojambula za Kumadzulo kunachitika ndi kufalikira kwa maufumu oyambirira a ku Ulaya pakati pa zaka za zana la khumi ndi zisanu ndi khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri. Poyamba, olemba mapu a ku Ulaya ankakopera mapu akale ndi kuwagwiritsa ntchito monga maziko a kampasi, telesikopu, ndi kufufuza zinthu kunawapangitsa kulakalaka kulondola kwambiri.

Chifukwa chake, dziko lakale kwambiri padziko lapansi, chifaniziro chakale kwambiri chokhala ndi mbali zitatu cha dziko lamakono, lolembedwa mu 1492, ndi buku la Martín Behaim. United States (m’dzina limenelo) inaloŵetsedwa m’dziko la United States mu 1507, ndipo mapu oyamba okhala ndi equator amene anamaliza maphunziro awo anawonekera mu 1527.

Panjira, mtundu wa fayilo yajambula wasintha kwambiri m'chilengedwe. Matchati omwe ali pansanjika yoyamba adapangidwa ndi manja kuti azitha kuyenda pogwiritsa ntchito nyenyezi monga momwe amafotokozera.

Koma iwo anadzidzimuka mwamsanga ndi kubwera kwa matekinoloje atsopano ojambula zithunzi monga kusindikiza ndi kulemba. Posachedwapa, kubwera kwa zamagetsi ndi makompyuta kwasintha mpaka kalekale momwe mapu amapangidwira. Masetilaiti ndi machitidwe apadziko lonse lapansi tsopano akupereka zithunzi zolondola zapadziko lapansi kuposa kale.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za zojambulajambula ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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