Rutherford

ernest rutherford

Mwa akatswiri omwe adathandizira kwambiri sayansi zaka mazana aposachedwa tili nawo Rutherford. Dzina lake lonse ndi Lord Ernest Rutherford ndipo adabadwa pa Ogasiti 30, 1871. Iye anali wasayansi waku Britain komanso wasayansi yemwe adathandizira kwambiri pazasayansi. Adabadwira ku Nelson, New Zealand. Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri pazasayansi ndi mtundu wa Rutherford wa atomiki.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa pamoyo wa Rutherford komanso mbiri yake.

Mbiri ya Rutherford

boma

Anali mwana wa a Martha Thompson ndi a James Rutherford. Abambo anali mlimi waku Scotland komanso wamakaniko ndipo amayi ake anali mphunzitsi wa Chingerezi. Anali wachinayi mwa abale khumi ndi m'modzi ndipo makolo ake nthawi zonse amafuna kuphunzitsa ana awo maphunziro abwino kwambiri. Kusukulu mphunzitsi adalimbikitsa kwambiri posintha kukhala wophunzira waluso. Izi zidalola Ernest Nditha kulowa ku koleji ya Nelson. Ndi koleji yokhala ndi malo osungira anthu ambiri aluso. Anatha kukulitsa mikhalidwe yabwino ya rugby yomwe idamupangitsa kukhala wotchuka pasukulu pake.

M'chaka chake chomaliza adakhala woyamba pamasukulu onse ndipo adatha kulowa kukoleji ya Canterbury. Pambuyo pake ku yunivesite adachita nawo zosiyana magulu azasayansi komanso owunikira koma sananyalanyaze machitidwe ake a rugby. Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake adalimbitsa maphunziro ake masamu chifukwa cha maphunziro omwe adapeza ku University of New Zealand. Pambuyo pake adachita chidwi ndi chidwi chake komanso kuthekera kwake kuthana ndi zovuta zamankhwala ndi masamu. Chifukwa chake, atha kukhala wophunzira wabwino ku Cambridge.

Kufufuza koyamba

kuyesera kwa chemistry ndi fizikiya

Kufufuza koyamba kwa Rutherford kudayamba kuwonetsa kuti chitsulo chimatha kupangidwa ndi maginito pogwiritsa ntchito ma frequency apamwamba. Zotsatira zake zabwino kwambiri zamaphunziro zidamulola kuti apitilize maphunziro osiyanasiyana ndikufufuza kwazaka zambiri. Ku Laboratories ku Cambridge Cavendish adakwanitsa kuchita zomwe adachita motsogozedwa ndi yemwe adazindikira za electron Joseph John Thompson. Makhalidwewa adayamba kuchitika kuyambira mchaka cha 1895.

Asanapite kukachita kafukufukuyu, adakwatirana ndi Mary Newton. Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake ndipo chifukwa cha ntchito yake adasankhidwa kukhala pulofesa ku Yunivesite ya McGill ku Montreal. Izi zinali ku Canada. Zaka zingapo pambuyo pake, atabwerera ku United Kingdom, adayamba ntchito yophunzitsa ku University of Manchester. Apa ndipomwe adayamba kuphunzitsa makalasi oyeserera a sayansi. Pomaliza pake Thompson adasiya kukhala director of the Cavendish laboratory ku Cambridge University ndipo Rutherford adalowa m'malo mwake.

Chimodzi mwamawu odziwika kwambiri a wasayansiyu ndi awa:

"Ngati kuyesa kwanu kumafunikira ziwerengero, kuyesera kwabwino kukadakhala kofunikira." Ernest Rutherford

Zomwe Rutherford anapeza

mtundu wa atomiki

Mu 1896 ma radioactivity anali atapezeka kale ndipo izi zidawakhudza kwambiri wasayansiyu. Pachifukwa ichi, adayamba kufufuza ndikuchita kafukufuku pakapita nthawi ndikuyesera kudziwa zomwe zimayambitsa ma radiation. Ananenanso kuti ma alpha particles ndi helium nuclei ndipo adadabwitsa aliyense mu sayansi ndikupanga chiphunzitso cha atomiki. Ndiko komwe mtundu wa atomiki wa Rutherford umachokera. Monga mphotho, adasankhidwa kukhala membala wa Royal Society mu 1903 ndipo pambuyo pake Purezidenti.

Mtundu wa atomiki udafotokozedwa mu 1911 ndipo pambuyo pake udapukutidwa ndi Niels Bohr. Tiyeni tiwone malangizo omwe akutsogolera a Rutherford:

  • Tinthu tomwe timayimba bwino mkati mwa atomu amapangidwa ndi voliyumu yaying'ono kwambiri ngati tingayerekeza ndi kuchuluka kwathunthu kwa atomu.
  • Pafupifupi misa yonse yomwe atomu ili nayo ili mgulu laling'ono lomwe latchulidwalo. Unyinji wamkatiwu unkatchedwa kuti phata.
  • Ma electron omwe ali ndi milandu yolakwika amapezeka akuzungulira mozungulira phata.
  • Ma elekitironi akuyenda mothamanga kwambiri akakhala kuti ali pafupi ndi phata ndipo amatero m'njira zozungulira. Ma trajector awa amatchedwa njira. Pambuyo pake ndidzatero amadziwika kuti orbital.
  • Ma elekitironi onse omwe adanyozedwa molakwika komanso phata la atomu yoyendetsedwa yokha imagwiridwa pamodzi chifukwa cha mphamvu yokopa yamagetsi.

Zonsezi zidawonetsedwa poyeserera ndikuloledwa kukhazikitsa gawo lazowonjezera zakukula kwa atomiki. Ernest adapanga lingaliro lokhudza kuwonongeka kwachilengedwe komwe kumakhudzana ndikusintha kwadzidzidzi kwa zinthu. Ngati akadakhala wothandizirana naye poyerekeza ndi radiation chifukwa cha ntchito yake mu sayansi ya atomiki. Chifukwa chake, amalemekezedwa ngati m'modzi mwa makolo a malangizowa.

Mphoto ya Nobel mu Chemistry

Zopereka mu sayansi zidathandiza kwambiri pankhondo yoyamba yapadziko lonse. Ndipo ndizotheka kuchita maphunziro osiyanasiyana kuti mudziwe ma submarine pogwiritsa ntchito mafunde amawu. Uwu anali woyamba woyamba wamaphunziro, ngakhale mkangano utatha, kutumizira koyamba kwa zinthu zamankhwala kudachitika pomenya bomba la nayitrogeni ngati tinthu tina tomwe timatulutsa alpha. Ntchito zazikulu zonse za Rutherford zidakalipobe mpaka pano m'malaibulale ndi mayunivesite padziko lonse lapansi. Ntchito zake zambiri ndizokhudzana ndi radioactivity ndi radiation kuchokera kuzinthu zamagetsi.

Chifukwa cha chidziwitso chomwe adapeza pakufufuza kwake zakusokonekera kwa zinthu, adatha kulandira Mphotho ya Nobel mu chemistry mu 1908, asanafalitse mtundu wake wa atomiki. Element 104 ya tebulo la periodic adatchedwa Rutherfordium pomulemekeza. Komabe, tikudziwa kuti palibe chamuyaya ndipo, ngakhale wasayansiyu adachita bwino kwambiri pa sayansi, adamwalira pa Okutobala 19, 1937 ku Cambridge, England. Mitembo yake yakufa idayikidwa ku Westminster Abbey ndipo kumeneko amapuma limodzi ndi a Sir Isaac Newton ndi Lord Kelvin.

Monga mukuwonera, pali asayansi ambiri omwe apereka zambiri zokumana nazo komanso chidziwitso kudziko la sayansi ndipo, palimodzi, akutipangitsa kudziwa zambiri. Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za mbiri ndi zabwino za Lord Ernest Rutherford.


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