International Space Station

okalamba

La International Space Stationl (ISS) ndi malo ofufuzira ndi labotale yotanthauzira malo momwe mabungwe angapo apadziko lonse lapansi amagwirira ntchito limodzi ndikugwira ntchito. Otsogolera ndi mabungwe aku America, Russian, European, Japan ndi Canada, koma amabweretsa gulu lamitundu yosiyanasiyana komanso luso loyendetsa ndikugwiritsa ntchito zida zomwe zaperekedwa.

M'nkhaniyi tikuuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa zokhudza International Space Station ndi kufunika kwake.

International Space Station

satellite station

Ogwira ntchitowa amagwira ntchito zovuta zogwirira ntchito ntchito zomanga, zopangira zopangira ndikuthandizira kukhazikitsa, gwiritsani ntchito magalimoto angapo oyambitsa, kuchita kafukufuku, ndikuwongolera ukadaulo ndi njira zolumikizirana.

Msonkhano wa International Space Station unayamba ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa gawo la Russian Zarya control pa Novembara 20, 1998, lolumikizidwa ndi malo omangidwa ndi US omwe adamangidwa patatha mwezi umodzi, koma idasinthidwa ndikukulitsidwa momwe zimafunikira. Pakatikati mwa 2000, gawo la Zvezda lopangidwa ku Russia linawonjezeredwa, ndipo mu November chaka chomwecho, gulu loyamba la anthu okhalamo linafika, lopangidwa ndi injiniya wa zakuthambo wa ku America William Shepard ndi injiniya wamakina waku Russia Sergey Krikalev ndi Colonel Yurigi Cenko. Russian Air Force. Kuyambira pamenepo, malo okwerera mlengalenga akhala otanganidwa.

Iyi ndiye siteshoni yamumlengalenga yayikulu kwambiri yomwe idamangidwapo ndipo ikupitilirabe kulumikizidwa mozungulira. Kukula kumeneku kukadzatha, chidzakhala chinthu chachitatu chowala kwambiri kumwamba pambuyo pa Dzuwa ndi Mwezi.

Kuyambira chaka 2000, oyenda mumlengalenga omwe amafika ku International Space Station amazungulira pafupifupi miyezi isanu ndi umodzi iliyonse. Anafika pachombo chochokera ku United States ndi Russia, limodzi ndi zinthu zopulumutsira. Soyuz ndi Progress ndi zina mwa zombo za ku Russia zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pazifukwa izi.

Zigawo za International Space Station

Space Station yapadziko lonse lapansi

Zida zapamlengalenga ndizosavuta kupanga. Zimayendetsedwa ndi ma solar panels ndipo zimakhazikika ndi dera lomwe limataya kutentha kuchokera ku ma modules, malo omwe ogwira nawo ntchito amakhala ndikugwira ntchito. Masana, kutentha kumafika pa 200ºC, pomwe usiku kumatsika mpaka -200ºC. Kwa ichi, kutentha kuyenera kuyendetsedwa bwino.

Ma trusses amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuthandizira ma solar panels ndi kutentha kwa kutentha, ndipo ma modules opangidwa ngati mitsuko kapena mabwalo amalumikizidwa ndi "node." Ena mwa ma modules akuluakulu ndi Zarya, Unity, Zvezda ndi Solar Array.

Mabungwe angapo a zakuthambo apanga zida za roboti kuti ziziyendetsa ndi kusuntha katundu wochepa, komanso kuyang'ana, kuika, ndi kusintha ma solar. Chodziwika kwambiri ndi telemanipulator yamlengalenga yopangidwa ndi timu yaku Canada, chomwe chimadziwika ndi muyeso wake wamtali wamamita 17. Ili ndi zolumikizira 7 zama injini ndipo imatha kunyamula zolemera kuposa nthawi zonse monga mkono wa munthu (mapewa, chigongono, dzanja ndi zala).

Zitsulo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ponseponse popanga malowa zimagonjetsedwa ndi dzimbiri, kutentha ndi kuwala kwa dzuwa, kotero sizikhala zatsopano ndipo sizimatulutsa mpweya wapoizoni zikakumana ndi zinthu zakuthambo.

Kunja kwa malo okwerera mlengalenga kuli ndi chitetezo chapadera ku kugundana kwakung'ono kwa zinthu zakuthambo, monga ma micrometeorites ndi zinyalala. Micrometeorites ndi miyala yaing'ono, nthawi zambiri yosakwana gramu, yomwe imawoneka ngati yopanda vuto. Komabe, chifukwa cha liwiro lawo, amatha kuwononga kwambiri nyumba popanda chitetezo. Momwemonso, mawindo ali ndi chitetezo chotsutsana ndi mantha chifukwa amapangidwa ndi zigawo 4 za galasi la 3 cm wandiweyani.

Ikamalizidwa, ISS idzakhala yolemera pafupifupi ma kilogalamu 420.000 ndi kutalika kwa 74 metres.

Ili kuti?

moyo pa international space station

Malo opangira kafukufuku ali pamtunda wa makilomita 370-460 pamwamba pa nthaka (pafupifupi mtunda pakati pa Washington DC ndi New York) ndipo amayenda pa liwiro lodabwitsa la 27.600 km/h. Izi zikutanthauza kuti malo okwerera mlengalenga amazungulira Dziko Lapansi mphindi 90-92 zilizonse, motero ogwira ntchito amakumana ndi kutuluka ndi kulowa kwa dzuwa 16 patsiku.

Malo okwerera mlengalenga amazungulira Dziko Lapansi pamtunda wa madigiri 51,6., zomwe zimachititsa kuti madera 90 pa 3 aliwonse akhale ndi anthu. Chifukwa kutalika kwake sikwapamwamba kwambiri, kumawonekera pansi ndi maso amaliseche panthawiyo. Pa intaneti http://m.esa.int mutha kutsatira njira yake munthawi yeniyeni kuti muwone ngati ili pafupi ndi dera lathu. Masiku atatu aliwonse amadutsa malo omwewo.

moyo wapa station

Kutsimikizira ogwira nawo ntchito kuyambira koyambira mpaka kumapeto si ntchito yophweka chifukwa pali zowopsa zambiri kuyambira paulendo wapamtunda kupita ku thanzi mutatha kukhala mumlengalenga. Komabe, masinthidwe angathandize oyenda mumlengalenga kupewa ngozi zazikulu.

Mwachitsanzo, kusowa kwa mphamvu yokoka kumakhudza minofu ya munthu, mafupa ndi kayendedwe ka magazi, chifukwa chomwe ogwira ntchito ayenera kuchita masewera olimbitsa thupi kwa maola awiri patsiku. Zochita zolimbitsa thupi zimaphatikizapo kusuntha kwa miyendo ngati njinga, mayendedwe amikono a benchi, komanso ma deadlift, squats ndi zina zambiri. Zida zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito zimagwirizana bwino ndi malo, chifukwa ziyenera kukumbukira kuti kulemera kwa mlengalenga ndi kosiyana ndi kulemera kwa dziko lapansi.

Zimatenga masiku angapo kuti muzitha kugona bwino. Izi ndizofunikira kuti ogwira nawo ntchito azikhala ndi chidwi chogwira ntchito komanso kupanga zisankho. Oyenda mumlengalenga amakonda kugona pakati pa maora asanu ndi limodzi ndi asanu ndi limodzi ndi theka pafupipafupi, ndipo amamangiriridwa ku chinthu chomwe sichimawombera.

Oyenda mumlengalenga amatsuka mano, kutsuka tsitsi ndi kupita ku bafa monga wina aliyense, koma sikophweka monga kunyumba. Ukhondo wabwino wa mano umayamba ndi kutsuka tsitsi nthawi zonse, koma popeza kulibe sinki, zotsalira sizingalandiridwe, kotero anthu ena amasankha kuzimeza kapena kuzitaya pa chopukutira. Matawulo amasinthidwa nthawi zonse ndipo amapangidwa ndi zinthu zoonda koma zotsekemera.

Ma shampoos omwe amagwiritsa ntchito safunikira kutsuka, komanso madzi omwe amagwiritsa ntchito pathupi amatsukidwa ndi thaulo chifukwa kusowa mphamvu yokoka kumapangitsa madziwo kumamatira pakhungu ngati thovu m'malo mogwera pansi. Kuti akwaniritse zosowa zawo zakuthupi, amagwiritsa ntchito fayilo yapadera yolumikizidwa ndi fan yoyamwa.

Zakudya zomwe amatsatira ndizopadera, samasangalala nazo monga Padziko Lapansi, chifukwa zikatero mkamwa umakhala wocheperako, ndipo umapakidwa mwanjira ina.

Sikuti zonse zimagwira ntchito pamlengalenga. Ndi anthu ochepa amene amadziwa kuti oyenda mumlengalenga amakhalanso ndi zochita zina kuti apewe kunyong’onyeka ndi kupsinjika maganizo. Mwina kuyang'ana pawindo ndikuyang'ana Padziko lapansi ndikokwanira, monga momwe anthu ochepa amachitira, koma miyezi 6 ndi nthawi yayitali. Amatha kuonera mafilimu, kumvetsera nyimbo, kuwerenga, kusewera makadi komanso kulankhulana ndi okondedwa awo. Kuwongolera malingaliro komwe kumafunika kugwira ntchito nthawi yayitali pamalo okwerera mlengalenga ndi gawo lina lotheka la oyenda mumlengalenga.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitsochi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za siteshoni yapadziko lonse lapansi ndi mawonekedwe ake.


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