Mtsinje wa Suez

kutalika kwa njira

Munthu wakhala protagonist wa zochitika zambiri zomangamanga. Kupangidwa kwa ngalande yomwe imatha kulumikiza Nyanja Yofiira ndi Nyanja ya Mediterranean ndiye kudzoza kwazikhalidwe zakale zomwe zakhala mu Isthmus of Suez. Pakhala zoyeserera zingapo mpaka kumapeto kumangidwa Mtsinje wa Suez. Njirayo ndiyofunikira kwambiri kuchokera pakuwona kwachuma ndipo ili ndi mbiri yayikulu komanso yosangalatsa yomwe tikufotokozereni pano.

Munkhaniyi tikukuwuzani zonse zomwe muyenera kudziwa za Suez Canal, mamangidwe ake ndi mbiri yake.

Suez ngalande kamangidwe

kufunika kwachuma ngalandeyi

Sitibwerera mmbuyo kufikira zoyesayesa zoyambirira zomanga ngalandeyi m'zaka za zana la XNUMX. BC Nthawi imeneyo, a Farao Sesostris III anali ndi ngalande ankatha kulumikiza Mtsinje wa Nailo ndi Nyanja Yofiira. Ngakhale inali ndi malo ochepa, inali yokwanira kukwana mabwato onse panthawiyo. Njirayi idagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mpaka pakati pa zaka za zana la XNUMX. BC Chipululu chinali chachikulu mokwanira kuti chimapeza gawo lalikulu la nthaka mpaka kunyanja, kutsekereza potuluka.

Pachifukwa ichi a Farao Neko adayesetsa kutsegula ngalandeyi osapambana. Oposa amuna 100.000 adamwalira poyesera kuti atsegule ngalandeyo. Patatha zaka zana limodzi mfumu ya Perisiya, Dariyo, idagwira ntchito kuti athe kubwezeretsa gawo lakumwera kwa ngalandeyi. Lingaliro linali kubweretsa njira yomwe zombo zonse zimadutsa molunjika ku Mediterranean osadutsa mumtsinje wa Nile. Ntchitoyi inatha zaka 200 pambuyo pake pansi pa Ptolemy II. Kapangidwe kake kanali kofanana ndendende ya Suez Canal.

Panali kusiyana kwamamita asanu ndi anayi pakati pamadzi a Nyanja Yofiira ndi a Nyanja ya Mediterranean, chifukwa chake izi zimayenera kuganiziridwa pakuwerengera mamangidwe a ngalandeyi. Munthawi yaulamuliro waku Roma ku Egypt, kusintha kwakukulu kudachitika komwe kungalimbikitse malonda. Komabe, atachoka Aroma ngalande iyi linasiyidwanso ndipo silinagwiritsidwe ntchito pa chilichonse. Munthawi yaulamuliro wa Asilamu Khalifa Omar anali woyang'anira kuchira kwake. Pambuyo pazaka zana zonse zikugwira ntchito idabwezedwanso ndi chipululu.

Tiyenera kukumbukira kuti chipululu chimakhala chosasunthika pakapita nthawi komanso kuti mchenga ungathe kuwononga chilichonse chomwe chikuyenda.

Mbiri ya Suez Canal

Kufunika kwa ngalande ya suez

Kukhalapo kwa Suez Canal kunabisikirabe kuyambira pamenepo kwazaka chikwi. Mpaka pomwe Napoleon Bonaparte, yemwe adafika ku Egypt mu 1798. Pakati pa gulu la akatswiri omwe adatsagana ndi Napoleon pali akatswiri ena odziwika ndipo adalamulidwa kuti ayang'anire dothi kuti atsimikizire ngati kutseguka kwa ngalande komwe kungalole kudutsa kwa asitikali ndi katundu kupita Kummawa. Cholinga chachikulu cha ngalandeyi ndi njira zamalonda zomwe zakhala zikuchitika.

Ngakhale adapeza zomwe mafarao akale anali kufunafuna njira yotsegulira ngalandeyi, mainjiniya a zomangamanga anali osatheka konse. Popeza panali mamitala asanu ndi anayi a kusiyana pakati pa nyanja ziwirizo, sizinalole kuti amangidwe. Zaka zidadutsa, kilomita yomwe idakulirakulira ndikufunika kotsegulira njira yapanyanjayi.

Pakati pa kusintha kwamakampani, malonda aku East Asia anali atasiya kukhala apamwamba ndipo anali ofunikira pakukula kwachuma kwamphamvu zonse zaku Europe. Mu 1845, msewu wina wowonjezeredwa, womwe unali woyamba Njanji zaku Aigupto zolumikiza Alexandria ndi doko la Suez. Panali njira yodutsa m'chipululu cha Sinai koma sizinatheke chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa katundu omwe apaulendo amatha kunyamula. Kugulitsa m'malo awa sikunali kotheka kwenikweni.

Chingwe choyamba cha sayansi ya njanji chinali chothandiza kwambiri kunyamula okwera koma osakwanira kunyamula katundu. Sakanatha kupikisana ndi sitima zapamadzi zatsopano zomwe zidalipo panthawiyo, zomwe zinali zothamanga kwambiri komanso zolemera kwambiri.

Kumanga kwake

Pomaliza, ntchito yomanga ngalandeyi idayamba mu 1859 ndi kazembe waku France komanso wabizinesi Ferdinand de Lesseps. Pambuyo pazaka 10 zakumanga, idakhazikitsidwa ndipo idakhala imodzi mwamaofesi akulu kwambiri padziko lonse lapansi. Zikwi za ogwira ntchito wamba aku Egypt adagwira ntchito mokakamiza ndipo pafupifupi 20.000 mwa iwo adamwalira chifukwa chazovuta momwe ntchito yomangayo idachitikira. Ndi nthawi yoyamba m'mbiri yonse kugwiritsa ntchito makina ofukula omwe adapangidwira ntchitozi.

France ndi United Kingdom adakwanitsa kuyendetsa njirayi kwa zaka zingapo koma Purezidenti wa Egypt adaisankhira mu 1956. Izi zidabweretsa mavuto apadziko lonse lapansi otchedwa Nkhondo ya Sinai. Pankhondoyi, Israel, France ndi United Kingdom zinaukira dzikolo. Pambuyo pake, pakati pa 1967 ndi 1973 panali nkhondo zaku Arab ndi Israeli, monga Yom Kippur War (1973).

Kukonzanso komaliza kwa Suez Canal kunali mu 2015 ndi ntchito zina zokulitsa zomwe zadzetsa mikangano yambiri popeza yafika pamlingo ndi kutalika kwathunthu momwe ziliri pano.

Kufunika kwachuma

sitimayo yokhazikika mumtsinje wa suez

Masiku ano kwakhala kotchuka kusinthasintha chifukwa cha Kukhazikitsa chombo chotchedwa Ever Given, chomwe chili ndi zombo zoposa 300 ndi mabwato okwana 14 akugwira ntchito kumchira wake Zovuta kubweza mayendedwe apanyanja mderali.

Kufunika kwachuma makamaka ndikuti zombo pafupifupi 20.000 zimadutsa ngalandeyi pamanja ndipo ndi ngalande yoyenda bwino yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito ku Egypt. Chifukwa cha izi, dera lonseli lachita bwino chifukwa cha kusinthana kwamalonda. Amalola malonda apanyanja pakati pa Europe ndi South Asia ndipo ali ndi malo abwino.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndi chidziwitso ichi mutha kuphunzira zambiri za Suez Canal, mamangidwe ake ndi mbiri yake.


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